Rice, Anne: Tale of the Body Thief
(researched by Deirdre Lewis)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Published by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York, New York 1992 Copyright by 1992 by Anne O'Brien Rice

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

First edition published in grey cloth

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

225 leaves in 37 sections (33 chapters) 23.3 cm. 430 numbered pages, 1-8,431-446 unnumbered

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

The book does not appear to have been edited. It is introduced by the author, Anne Rice.

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Cover has what appears to be an "Anne Rice" emblem stamped into it. It has no color, ink or otherwise. [Will be given for illustration at later date]

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The hard cover of the book is a silvery-grey.It is attractive, though plain. There is no leaflet or inside cover. The title of the book on the bound edge is the most interesting part of the cover. This is primarily due to the silver print with which the publishers wrote the author's name and that of the text. The title of the book appears in black at the top of each page:with the left and right typed in two different fonts. The appearane adds character to the book. The typography is large and readable, with ample space between words and sentences.The print measures 3.5mm at its largest.Overall, the book and its text, though simple is very approachable.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper quality is remarkable. Though it is not textured, it is of heavy weight. Some of the pages are cut finely while others have rough edges.This does not however take away from the fine appearance as a whole. In fact, it adds more character to the pages. There is minimal deterioration to the pages, all of which are in perfect condition. Another copy in the first edition that was available had not held up as well. This appeared to be due to personal handling of the novel and not to the reliability of the paper itself. The color of the pages are off-white/cream.

11 Description of binding(s)

The binding is secured in a variety of ways. First, each of the 15 sections appears to be glued to a piece of cardboard in the spine of the book. This has then been stitched to a blue checkered piece of cloth, which was then glued to the grey cloth outer cover. There is little space between each,which had to be pulled slightly apart in order to decipher its mechanism. The grey fabric used for the hard cover is glued along the length of the binding, and appears to be holding strong.

12 Transcription of title page

(small design of greyhound centered)
ALFRED A.KNOPF New York 1992 The words "THE TALE" and "BODY THIEF" measure 1cm. "OF THE" and "ANNE RICE" measure 6mm. All other words measure 3 mm. The greyhound design measures 5mm height and 2cm long. The rest of the page is blank.

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

According to all available sources, there is no evidence of Rice's manuscript holdings in any public or (known) private insitution. This is probably due to the fact that Rice, as of April, 1998, is still alive and well. Sources:Worldcat:subject/author search:*Contemporary Authors: Bibliographic Outline:galenet.com;VIRGO:*Periodicals:1983+; Database Browsing/Arts &Humanities Search; MLA Bibliographic File; New York Times Abstracts;Books@Random:randomhouse.com; Ramsland,Anne. Prism of the Night:A Biography of Anne Rice. New York: Penguin. 1992.

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

A Note on the Type (listed on pg. 433) This book was set in a digitized version of Janson. This page will be added into database at later date.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

1.Under the umbrella publisher, Randomhouse, Ballantine Books,Inc. New York.1992,1993. 435 pgs.; 18cm. This book is a smaller, paperback version, on Ballantine "tradepaper." It sells for $14.00. Background of front cover is dark, with a picture of the moon shining through clouds at the top of the book in a square. Directly below the picture is the author's name in a caligraphy-like type in white. Underneath her name, is the title of the book in the same bold type, with "Body Thief" taking up 1/3 of the cover. It is an attractive cover,with alluring script and a mystical feel. (still in search of copy: for more information) 2.Under the umbrella publisher Randomhouse, Knopf, Inc.Canada,1992 1st Canadian ed. Toronto,Canada. 430 pgs.;25 cm. Nat'l Library ISBN:0-394-223,7-9 3.Under umbrella publisher,Randomhouse, Knopf, Inc. Uncorrected proof of 1st edition. Brwon University. for distribution to reviewers, et.al. BOund in white printed wrapper. Oct. 1992. 428 pgs. 23 cm. ISBN:0-679-40528-3 "Hay Katzoff copy": Half title inscribed, "For John [Preston], my dearest and best friend, Love, Anne."

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

According to MacLean's Magazine, Nov.16, 1992 an interview with Anne Rice,there had been 750,000 in the first North American Press Run. There were two different impressions:Alfred A. Knopf and Ballantine Books Inc. (the publishers have yet to respond to my request for this information) There appear to have been atleast 5 printings of the first edition, under umbrella publisher Randomhouse. The reason for so few is unknown, but in the very next year after the first printing, there is no evidence that any were a first edition copy.

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

1. Penguin Books. New York, London. 1992,1993. 435 pgs;18 cm. 2. Chatto & Windus. London. 1992. (more info not listed)

6 Last date in print?

1. Ballantine Books, Inc. trade paper, (binding) english, Dec. 1997; ISBN:034519634 2. Ballantine Books, Inc. mass market paper, (binding) english, June, 1994; ISBN: 0345903366 (out of print) 3. Randomhouse, Random House Value,Publishers Inc. trade cloth, March, 1994; ISBN: 051711710X (out of print) 4. Ballantine Books, Inc. mass market paper, (binding) english, Oct.3, 1993; Paperbound;448 pgs. ISBN: 034538475X

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

publisher has yet to respond

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

publisher has yet to respond

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

1. Los Angeles Times Book Review. Oct.25,1992.pgs. 1,9 There is an article here on "Tale" which describes the book's main plot. "Vampire Tans!News at 11": title. Good LInes: "Anne Rice's elegant smoothie, the Vampire Lestat, is back, and up to al his old immortal tricks. . ." "People love these books, and not, I think, for only this delicious sensuality. Reading Anne Rice is likesneaking by the back door into God's mansion. There He is, chatting with the Devil." 2. The Atlanta Journal/Constitution Oct. 4,1992.Book Review: p.1 Here is an article on "Tale" with a picture of Anne and the front cover leaf of her novel. Oddly enough, the cover shown is not one that I have run across anywhere else, so this might be a special advertising copy. (will download at later date) "Ms. Rice enwraps this episode of the Chronicles with a prose that, while not as voluptuously baroque as that embroidering earlier installments, is silkenly sensuous." "'The tale of the Body Thief'has mega-best-sellerdom-stamped on each of its mesmerizing pages." 3. MacLean's Nov.16, 1992. p.68 Books. This article discusses the novel and has a bit of an interview with the author. There is a picture of Anne on this page, sitting in a chair smiling, which is a first from my experience. "For Rice, the cult of the vampire hero is more than a passing fad. 'It's in our genes,' she says. 'It takes us back to primitive times when we worshiped dark gods as well as light gods. And it's a powerful metaphor for the outcast- and the monster in all of us."(68)

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

According to the "Just for Fans" website near the "Official Anne Rice Homepage," she does frequent book tours. This site also gives advice on how to act at them, etc. I have found no other information about booksignings for this, or any of her other novels.

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

1. Audio Cassette: Randomhouse (Audio). Oct.1,1992.(inches: 7.09x4.40x.81)ISBN:0679411623 2. Audio Cassette: Recorded Books, Inc. 1992,1995. Narrated: Frank Muller; Prince Frederick, MD ISBN:0788700960

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

1.Spanish:"El ladron de cuerpos. 1 ed." Ediciones B, Barcelona, Espana, 11993. 438 pgs.: ill. ; 24 cm. 2.Spanish:"El ladron de cuerpos." Editorial Atlantida, Buenos Aires, 1993. 422 pgs;23 cm. 3.Spanish:"El ladron de cuerpos." Editorial Atlantida, Buenos Aires, 1995. 543 pgs;18 cm. 4.Russian:"Porest? o pokhititele tel."Kron Press. Moskra, Russia.1995. 526 pgs. 21 cm. 5.Polish:"Opowiesc o zlodzieju cial." Amber. Warszawa, Poland.1996. 288 pgs. 6.Korean:"Yukch'e ui toduk." Youl. Soul, Korea. 1996. 2v.23cm.

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A

There is no evidence for existence of any serialization, anywhere.

15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

There are three prequels collectively called: "The Vampire Chronicles" 1.Interview with a Vampire. 1st Ballantine Books,Inc. New York,c1976,1977. 346 pgs. 18cm. 2.The Vampire Lestat. 1st Ballantine Books,Inc.ed. New York,c1985,1986. 550 pgs. 18cm. 3.The Queen of the Damned. 1st Ballantine Books, Inc,. New York,c1988,1989.481 pgs.

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Sources Used for the Following Information include: 1. Anne Rice's Official Home Page:Timeline.Contributed by Laurie Laurie M.Salopek;http://www.annericecom. 2. Contemporary Authors:World Net Author Search http://galenet.gale.com 3. Ramsland,Katherine. Prism of the Night:A Bibliography of Anne Rice.Penguin Books,Inc.New York;October,1992. Anne Rice was born October 4,1941 in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her birth-name was "Howard Allen Fraces O'Brien,"but due to constant ridicule for having a "boy's name," Anne herself changed it when only six years old. Her two Irish Catholic parents, Howard
and Katherine Allen O'Brien had a powerful impact on her life. Both came from large families and aspired to do the same. Anne is the second of four girls:Alice,Tamara and Karen were born in 1939,1947 and 1949 respectively. Because Anne's father worked
frequently,Katherine spent the majority of her time teaching her children to read,write and create to their fullest potentials.Though Katherine was a devout Catholic, she exercised a sense of freedom personally (she drank a lot) and with her daughters.Raising the children to be independent thinkers, in a time in which
girls were not sapposed to excel intellectually,was Katherine's highest goal.They called their parents by their first names and were encouraged to inquire about anything they wished. Katherine's gift of story-telling also influenced the girls' upbringi
ng, especially Anne's. She relates much of her inspiration to become a novelist to her childhood and the remarkable atmosphere in which she grew up. Freedom was key to Anne, and New Orleans had the perfect ambience for her to experience a variety of people, places and beliefs. Of particular importance was Anne's relations
hip to Catholicism and the church. Images of the spiritual and feelings of sexuality and the androgyny therein shows through in Anne's later novels.Outside of her home, she was bombarded with religion in the Redemptorist School,a strict Catholic institut
ion. Despite its harsh rules, the school served to create a high moral standard by which Anne stands to this day.Belief though, she knows is not enough, for her mother died of alcoholism when Anne was just fourteen. After this,her father remarried and was transfered to a new job in Richland,Texas, where she completed her hig
h school education. It was at Richland High School that Anne's life would change forever-she would meet her future husband,Stan Rice. Though the two did not particularly hit it off at first,fate would have it that a year and a half later, when Anne had a
lready graduated from high school,had completed two years in one at Texas Women's University and had moved to San Francisco,they would meet again. Worried that he had lost his chance with her,in 1960 Stan sent a letter to Anne and spurred a new relationship between them. One year later on October 16,1961 they were marrie
d. After living in Texas for a year,they decided to move to San Francisco and attended the University of San Francisco until they were able to enroll in San Francisco Stae University. The two graduated from the latter in 1964,Anne in Political Science. In
1965, Anne published her first short story,"October 4,1948," in the San Francisco-based "Transfer." The following year Anne gave birth to her daughter Michele,published the initial chapter of "Nicholas and Jean" in "Transfer," moved to Taraval and attended graduate school. For three years they remained in Taraval until 1968, when the couple
moved to Berkeley. That same year, Anne wrote a short story called "Interview with a Vampire" and a novella entitled "Katherine and Jean." Though Anne was accepted into the PhD program at Berkeley in 1970, she disliked it and returned to SFSU in order to
finish a master's program in creative writing. The harsh reality of life's impermanence hit abruptly two years later when Michele died of leukemia. Instead of letting this stop her,in 1973 Anne decided to focus all of her attention on writing and completed the novel,Interview with a Vampire,in just five weeks. Though thi
s book was rejected by a publisher and a literary contest in 1973,Anne was fortunate to have met her first agent,Phyllis Seidel, at a writer's conference in 1974. Seidel took "Interview" to Knopf PUblishers who bought it. In 1976,"Interview" was publishe
d and proceeded to make over $700,000 in sales. After some moving and travelling,Anne had her second and last son,Christopher,on March 11,1978. Anne lived in Berkeley for the next ten years, during which time she published the following books: The Feast of All Saints,1979,Knopf; Cry to Heaven,Knopf & "Master of Rambling
Gate,"in Redbook,1982; The Claiming of Sleeping Beauty, by "A.N.Roquelaure,"Dutton,1993; Beauty's Punishment,Dutton,1984;"Desert Song,"for Tommy Tune, Exit to Eden,Arbor House, by "Anne Rampling", The Vampire Lestat,Knopf,1985; Belinda,by "Rampling," Ar
bor House, wrote treatment for "The Voice,"Lorimar gained rights to The Vampire Lestat and The Queen of the Damned,1986; The Queen of the Damned,Knopf,1988; The Mummy/Ramses the Damned,Ballantine,1989; The Witching Hour,Knopf,1990; Lasher,Knopf,1993; Taltos,Knopf,1994; Memnoch the Devil,Knopf,1995; The Servant of the Bone
s,Knopf,1996; Violin,Knopf,1997. Editors used are as follows:Knopf,Victoria Wilson; Simon & Schuser,Joni Evans & John Dodds; Arbor House,John Dodds; Ballantine Books,Bob Wyatt; E.P Dutton,Bill Whitehead. To Anne's dismay, John Dodds and Bill Whitehead di
ed in 1987 of cancer and AIDS respectively. Her agents include:Phyllis Seidel and Lynn Nesbit. Anne presently lives with her husband,Stan and son,Christopher at 1239 First Street, New Orleans,Louisiana 70130, where she moved in 1989. She is still writing and will most likely release another novel this year, 1998. *The spacin
g on this assignment is awkward in the Database; this is due to a configuration error,and was not my intention.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

"The Tale of the Body Thief" has been described as "brilliant" and its author as the Madonna of the literary world. This is how Bob Summer, of the Atlanta Journal and Constitution, describes her in his article "Anne Rice vamps voluptously: 'The Tale of the Body Thief' will leave her loyal fans wanting more." To Summer, Rice 'enwraps this episode of the chronicles with a prose that, while not as voluptuosly baroque as that embroidering earlier installments, is silkenly sensuous." ". . . (T)he hypnotic eroticism that has become virtually a Rice trademark is abundantly in tact," continues Summer, and "no one writing today--straight, gay, or in between-- matches her deftness with the erotic.. .'The Tale of the Body Thief' has mega-best-seller-dom stamped on each of its mesmerizing pages." In addition, Dan Greenberg's review in the Chicago Review expresses why he loved the book, when he too calls it "brilliant' and writes: "Lestat's reactions to pulling on a mortal body like a suit of ill-fitting clothes and suddenly having to re-learn vulgar, unvampirelike bodily functions--uriniation, eating, defecation, making love-- are downright dazzling." The Los Angeles Times Book Review's article "Vampire Tans! New at 11" is another influential response. In its take on the book, Carolyn See says "There's a lot of fun to all this: good sex, great food, sunshine seen a hundred way and even a cruise. .." Rice's descriptive prose are elaborate and enticing, as she "notices everything. . ." To See, (r)eading Anne is like sneaking by the back door into God's mansion. There he is, chatting with the Devil. . .' But what makes the book so good is that "(b)eyond the blood, the food, the sex, and beignets, you can glimpse the Divine." Across the country, Sarah Smith, of the Washington Post Book World, writes in "The Vampire Strikes Back" that "Rice is in good form with 'The Tale of the Body Thief,' " and appreciates the book's "whiplash speed," page-turner plot," "beautifully realized atmosphere,' and "real storytelling intelligence." Though Smith seems to love the book when she states that "Rice is at her best, looking through the alienated power," she adds that 'Tale' is "both exhilerating and frustrating. . . because it might so easily have been better." This contradictory stance is also seen in Kirkus Reviews' August 1 issue. It states that while the book is "Rice's most strongly plotted novel yet," the first third of the book has a lot to be desired, as it a "waffling way into a novel that is slow to set its hook." Despite this beginning Kirkus writes: "But once Rice gers to the body switch, she provides her most inspired pages ever. . .Irrisistible as Steve Martin and lily Tomlin's 'All of Me.'
Responses to "The Tale of the Body Thief" in the years following its publication are relatively minimal, considering its best-seller status. The only reviews that I found in print were published in the same year as the book's publication.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Thus far, there is little evidence of any other indirect responses: no parodies, films, plays etc. There have been three theses written at different universities which included the book in its context/argument, but were not reviews or critiques of "Tale" itself. Other responses, in book form, are general responses to Anne Rice, and/or "The Vampire Chronicles" in general. Also, there are hundreds of web sites on Rice and the "Chronicles," but none specifically dedicated to this book. The 1992 critiques of "The Tale of the Body Thief" were included in atleast four major newspapers nationwide and two magazines. If reviews appeared in newspapers or periodicals,other than those listed, they were absent from any list in the various databases used to complete this assignment. The two magazines that wrote articles on "Tale" were New Woman and MacLeans. "Bookshelf: Forbidden Love" appeared in the November issue of 'NW' and appealed directly to the female public: "Rice's vampires suck us in by sheer force of personality. The undead are never boring or bland. . . For women who are dealing with commitment- phobes, Lestat is a refreshing take-charge guy, ready to go for it. . .And you can be sure that Lestat never has to ask a woman what she likes. He knows. . " In the other highly- read magazine, MacLean's, Brian D. Johnson states that ". . . with a mix of fast action and breathless metaphysics, (the book) is a blood-racing read." Though I could not locate the exact date of publication, one web site, on the "Official Anne Rice Home Page," called "So Whos' that Anne chic?," reported that Newsweek cited Rice's work as "the reason why the movie of Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' deviated so much from the original book." While I have not found any direct comparisons of Rice's work to others', there have been books written which include Rice authors' overviews of gothic genre. In order to summarize the reasons for "Tale of the Body Thief"('s) popularity, I would like to end with two other responses that I found in regard to the novel's cassette tape recording. The St. Louis Dispatch stated: "Unquestionably Rice's best since Interview with a Vampire. . . Rice writes with exquisite powers of description. . . An exciting, fast-paced story providing further exploration of her themes: good vs. evil, immorality vs. the human condition. . . Long live Lestat!" In the San Francisco Chronicler, the reviewer summed up his thoughts when he wrote: "Rice is our modern messenger of the occult, whose nicely updated dark-side passion plays twist and turn in true gothic form." The net judgment of the reviewers was that "The Tale of the Body Thief" is a wonderful, final sequal in the Vampire series. Though a few stated its weakness in the first section of the novel, they all raved about its arresting prose. Why there were not subsequent reviews or even any mention of the book in later articles may be due to the fact that this was the last in a series, so that reviewers have had no reason to link additional novels to this particular book. Sources: Atlanta Journal: *Oct.4,1992;Jan.27,1993;Oct.3,1993;June 27,1993; Nov.11,1994; Boston Globe: Sept.30,1994,p64; Chicago Tribune: *Oct.15,1992,s.1,p22; Oct.26,1992,s.5,p1-2; Mar.5,1995,s.12,p1;Aug.31,1995,s.5,p2; L.A. Times Book Review: *Oct.25,1992,p1,9; Aug.15,1993,p10; Oct.31,1993,p3; MacLean's:Nov.16,1992,p68; New York Times Book Review: Oct.24,1993,p38;Dec.4,1994,p82;July 24,1995,p14; Publishers Weekly:June 5,1995,p51;Spectator: Dec.3,1994;Tribune Books: Oct,18,1992,p3;Oct.17,1993,p3;Oct.9,1994,p5;Washington Post Book World: *Oct.30,1992,p1;Oct.4,1993,p4-5;Oct.10,1993,p4;Oct.9,1994,p4;Jan.15,1995,p4; Aug.6, 1995,p2; San Francisco Chronicler:Oct.1993;New Woman:Nov.1993;St.Louis Dispatch: Nov.1993; Kirkus Reviews: Aug.1,1992; Worldcat:subject/author search:*Contemporary Authors:Bibliographic Outline:galenet.com;VIRGO:*Periodicals:1983+;Database Browsing/Arts &Humanities Search; MLA Bibliographic File; New York Times Abstracts; Books@Random: randomhouse.com

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

"The Tale of the Body Thief" by Anne Rice "The Queen of Gothic Horror"
"The Tale of the Body Thief," by Anne Rice, is the fourth book in a series entitled "The Vampire Chronicles." Published for the first time in October 1992, "Tale" soared to number one on the best seller list and proved to be one of Rice's top selling novels of all time. It was joyously received by her loyal fans and critics alike, and was said to have been a welcome addition to the previous three chronicles. An examination of "Tale's" reception in the literary world and the reasons for its success provide insight into the workings of the novel as a whole as well as its place in literary history. In addition, a look into the often paradoxical, public persona of Rice offers potential readers a glimpse into both the woman and the writer behind this gothic tale. And finally, it seems essential to provide an overview of the ways in which Rice (and her novels) effect a growing number of people around the world--from "goth kids" to professionals.
Qualities Reviewers Praised
When "Tale" came into print, book reviewers responded with enthusiasm. As reviously mentioned in Assignment Four, critics from the Chicago Tribune, The Atlanta Journal and The L.A. Times wrote about the novel in their columns. For them, "Tale" is "brilliant," with prose that are "silkenly sensuous." Carolyn See from the L.A. times remarked that the book was a whole lot of fun. She especially liked the "good sex, great food, sun shine seen a hundred ways and even a cruise on the QEII" (9). Each of the reviewers believed that Rice writes elegantly and truly delves into her characters' lives and the plot encompassing them. Some said that Rice had written her strongest plot yet with "Tale,"--one which would inevitably engross the reader. Also, these reviewers noted the novel's "hypnotic eroticism" and "blood-racing" speed. (Atlanta Journal & Maclean's) In addition to these reviews, three [recently found] articles in Newsweek and Time magazine further illustrate critics' responses. In two Newsweek issues, Tom Mathews called the characters "irresistible," while David Gates referred to the main character, Lestat, as the "James Bond of the vampires" (74 & 62). Finally, John Skow of Time magazine sums up these attitudes when he described his own appreciation of Rice's work, and particularly the novels' "private recognitions and ironies. . .tireless naughtiness. . .forbidden seductions and ultimate sterility." He continued: "[t]hese sly borrowings, more evident than ever in this fourth of the author's vampire tales, have worked brilliantly" (71). All in all, "Tale" became Rice's third critically acclaimed novel, which was evidenced in some of the most respected news magazines and newspapers across the country.
"Tale's" Popularity
While it is clear that the novel was well-received by critics, one must ask how the greater public responded. Obviously, "Tale's" hitting the best-seller list is evidence of Rice's success in that realm as well. According to Bookwire.com (an on-line source for information on author's, novels, etc.), "Tale" became number one in its first week on Publishers Weekly Hardcover Fiction Bestseller List on October 19, 1992, and remained on the list for ten weeks, with its average position at approximately 2.1. By December 28, 1992, however, the novel had fallen to fourth place, where it remained for an additional three weeks. Interestingly, "Tale" dropped again to the tenth spot on January 25, 1993 which proved to be its last week on the Bestseller List. The book's performance in 1993 was remarkably lower than the previous year, averaging 6.7 in position, thereby creating an average position of 3.4 overall.
Reasons for "Tale's" Popularity
The reasons for "Tale's" being fixed at the top of the Bestseller List and then suddenly dropping off after ten weeks may be explained by the timing of the novel's publication. As is the case with any book, a great review produces increased interest for both the author's loyal fans as well as potentially new readers. Since the book was released at the end of October 1992, the immediate surge of buyers appears to be associated with this phenomenon (i.e. loyal fans + influential reviews). One may suppose that this surge lasted a month or so, which would have brought the success of the book solidly into the beginning of December. Though the exact reasons for its continued success is unclear, it is possible that the previous buying frenzy of October and November influenced the shopping lists for the upcoming holidays. Wouldn't "Tale" have been an excellent Christmas or Hanukkah gift? As a matter of fact, it probably was for (seemingly) thousands of people. This logic squares with the fact that after the new year, the position dropped three spots to number four. It is further evidenced by the book's activity in the following weeks, during which it quickly fell off the list altogether. In the larger picture, "Tale's" popularity may be explained in the context of Rice's previous books, their popularity, and the gothic genre to which "The Vampire Chronicles" belong. Prior to the 1992 release of "Tale," Rice had succeeded in bringing at least two novels to Bestseller fame: "Interview with the Vampire" (1976) and "The Witching Hour" (1990). Of note is the placement of these books on the "Book-of-the-Month Club's" main and alternate selection pages. As the "Club" is a well-read and widely circulated publication, its influence is of significance (Bookwire.com, 2 and Bio. & Geneo. Master Index, 2). The popularity of these two works undoubtedly marked a place for Rice in later Bestseller lists. Though her other novels, ranging from the sadomasochistic to the erotic realms, did not become bestsellers, Rice seems to have gathered a loyal audience with them. Interestingly, she has written under her own name as well as two pseudonyms: A.N. Roquelaure and Anne Rampling. The books written under her own name include: "The Feast of All Saints" (Simon & Schuster: New York, 1980), "Cry to Heaven" (Knopf: New York, 1982), "The Vampire Lestat" (Ballantine: New York, 1985), "The Queen of the Damned" (Knopf: New York, 1988), "The Mummy": or, "Ramses the Damned" (Ballantine: New York, 1989 [Book-of-the-Month Club: main selection]), "Vampire Chronicles" ([contains "Interview," "The Vampire Lestat" and "The Queen of the Damned"] Ballantine: New York, 1989). Under A.N. Rouqelaure, Rice wrote: "The Claiming of Sleeping Beauty" (Dutton: New York, 1983), "Beauty's Punishment" (Dutton, 1984), and "Beauty's Release: The Continued Erotic Adventures of Sleeping Beauty" (Dutton, 1985). And lastly, Rice's novels written under the pseudonym, Anne Rampling, are as follows: "Exit to Eden" (Arbor House: New York, 1985 [made into movie in 1994- -was on Roger Ebert's "Top Ten Worst Movie List of 1994]) and "Belinda" (Arbor House, 1986). In addition to the potentially large readership of Rice's earlier works, there may be other reasons for "Tale's" popularity--namely a connection between the sexual preference of the main character and a growing acceptance to alternative lifestyles in society. Before I go further, however, it must be understood that this is only a theory and there has been nothing written about the possible link thus far. Having said that, I theorize that Lestat's being homosexual became more acceptable in the late 1980's and early 1990's, when gay pride movements and sexual discrimination laws were rising to new heights. These changes, in turn, may have opened the minds of many more conservative readers, who might have previously discarded the book, labeling it "unreadable." If this were the case, book sales would have risen as well. Though I have little direct evidence of this correlation, I was struck by an article that, at the very least, reflects a growing acceptance and appreciation for alternative lifestyles and the arts during the period surrounding "Tale's" publication. The November 23, 1992 issue of Newsweek published (one week prior to NW's second review of "Tale") "A Seven-Hour Gay Fantasia: A daring and dazzling play for our time." The article gives raving reviews of "Angel in America," a two-part, seven-hour epic by Tony Kushner. According to Newsweek's Jack Kroll, the play was the most ambitious play of our time. . . .that ranges from earth to heaven, focuses on politics, sex and religion. . . [and] switches between realism and fantasy, from the tragedy of AIDS to the camp comedy of drag queens. . . . (83)He continues, calling the play "sensational," and completes the article with the final lines of the epic: " 'We won't die any secret deaths anymore,' he says with quiet defiance. 'And we will be citizens. The time has come. Get used to it.' " (83) For me, these last lines are reflective of the early 1990's as a whole. That "Tale" was the first Rice "Chronicle" to hit the bestseller list within a week of publication, ("Interview" is a bestseller, but became one over a period of years) appears to reflect a growing interest and acceptance of alternative culture, whether it be a homosexual community or a gothic trend. Another hypothesis for "Tale's" fame stems from the massive "underground" gothic culture in American society. For the purpose of this paper, "gothic culture" refers to anything from organized "devil" and "vampire cults" to "goth pages" on the internet, and finally to your basic "goth teen (and adult) communities" which parade the streets of every city in America. While I am not suggesting that all satanists and "vampires" read Rice, I will hypothesize that media coverage of satanic and vampire rituals, like sacrifices, blood drinking etc., lead to increased interest in the subject, which in turn may influence a person's buying strategies. According to the Anderson County Sherif's Satanism Page, the first satanic "church" was established in the 1960's by Anton Lavey, and has continued to lure followers into its grasp for the past three decades, with a resurgence of satanic activity during the late 1980's and early 1990's. On September 13, 1991, for example, an article entitled "A Stake in the Vampire Biz," appeared in "Guardian" magazine. The author of the piece, Richard Benson, profiled a purported "vampire hunter" named Sean Manchester, who was convinced that vampire/satanic cults were "gaining a firm grip on the minds of the young. . . ." (1) Whether Manchester's argument was completely valid is at this point, unclear, as I had difficulty locating specific incidents of devil cults around that period. However, I (as well as a number of my colleagues) remember having read about incidents of vampire-like activity in the early 1990's. Interestingly, I was able to locate several articles in 1996 which may be responsible for continued interest in vampires and the occult. For example, an article in the Louisiana-based "Times-Picayun" on Nov. 30, 1996," entitled " 'Vampire cult' teens found at B.R. motel" relates the story of five teenagers "believed to be in a 'vampire cult' " in Kentucky who were sent to a Louisiana jail for the murders of one of the teenagers' parents on Nov. 29, 1996. Apparently all five were wanted in the parents' slayings, which was described as their being "bludgeoned to death." Similar articles appeared in the New York Times (Nov. 30, 1996) and the Chicago Tribune (Dec. 4, 1996) later that week. It would be interesting to find out whether incidents of "vampire killings" and the sale of Rice's books have any direct correlation. Unfortunately, I have been able to find none thus far. However, one cannot deny the impact the media has on the American public. We are both disgusted and engrossed by horror and death. Knowing this about our culture, it seems obvious to me that satanic and vampire cult activity have at least an indirect effect on the sales of allvampire and gothic material, including "Tale." To get a glimpse into the gothic world of the internet (which obviously began in the early 1990's), all one has to do is fill in a subject search on "Anne Rice" or "goth culture, " and hundreds of web sites appear. There are active, open forums, fan/goth sites--asking for e-mailed opinions, and others devoted entirely to Rice's books. The strongest "goth/Rice" connection may be summed up in one individual's web page: "Brecker's Anne Rice Links- links to the Queen of Gothic Horror." On this site, a person has access to hundreds of other Anne Rice sites and home pages. The relevance of this enormous on-line labyrinth is that it conveys an aspect of the goth/Anne Rice fan club community, which probably comprises a large fraction of Rice's buying public. That such a vast community exists on-line further evidences the goth's influence on book sales. In addition to these gothic fans on-line, the growing "goth" communities throughout the United States may also be a reason for "Tale's" bestsellerdom as well as its continued success. And finally, all of these possibilities may be propelled by Rice's popularity as a whole. A look into Rice's public persona will undoubtedly shed light on this phenomenon.
Rice's Public Persona
It is common knowledge that an author's public persona attracts or repels potential readers. In Rice's case, it appears that she does more attracting than anything. In general, the public seems to view Rice as a "witch-like" figure, always wearing black clothes, little make-up and a serious, if not cynical expression. In many promotional shots (especially from her earlier years), she appears to be a mysterious and perhaps, mystical figure whose personal beliefs and "powers" are summed up in her literature. As previously mentioned, she has been described as the "Queen of Gothic Horror." If her public persona did not, in effect, match this description, it would be more difficult for the public to really "believe" or "believe in" what she writes. If, for example, Rice was to be captured as a pastel and floral wearing, straight-pathed woman, people might not feel that she "knew" what she was talking about. Or, perhaps some might think her completely mad. As it is, however, Rice's public persona serves to "justify" her literature. Interestingly, if one were to delve into Rice's personal history, it seems that her dark exterior reflects a very real dark past. In my brief bibliography on the author, I mentioned the loss of her mother at a very young age, the loss of her only daughter to leukemia, as well as a bout with alcoholism which apparently, was leading Rice into an early death herself. Since Rice publicly acknowledges these traumatic experiences and the effects they have had on her writing, it appears that she is trying to convey a higher sense of awareness through her own suffering. By doing so, Rice welcomes others with similar hardships into her gothic realm--as she herself states--as a means to deal with the pain. Whether Rice's public persona is a reflection of a deeply painful history or merely a way to, in a sense, merge her writings with its author is unknown. But, in my opinion, who she appears to be and who she is, are very much the same. "Tale" in Comparison While this examination of Rice's public persona is revealing, it is also significant to see how her work compares with other novels. Obviously, "Tale," being a story about vampires, may be compared to several versions of "Dracula." Unfortunately, I have not had the time to reread the Dracula stories, but for the purpose of an argument, I will focus on Bram Stoker's Dracula. First of all, the enormous difference between the periods "Tale" and "Dracula" were written is of importance. Since Bram Stoker lived during the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, there is no doubt that both the content and the tone of the books vary greatly. The major differences include Rice's main character being homosexual with a "conscience," while Stoker's is a heterosexual "force of pure evil." In fact, Stoker's Dracula is set even further apart from Lestat when he is described as a "pestilence, the lord of bats and rats, and his touch was not romantic but rabid." (Newsweek, 71) Also, Rice's plot in "Tale" centers around Lestat switching bodies with a mortal, while Stoker's revels in a vampire's "satanic" tendencies. And lastly, Rice's prose engage the reader in an extremely erotic dialogue, while Stoker's are not the least bit seductive. (Newsweek, 71) In this light, the two books appear completely different, but in terms of genre, they are very much the same. Of note is the fact that in all of my research, I have found only one mentionable publication about Dracula in relation to Rice's Chronicles. Tom Mathews of Newsweek states that in Francis Ford Coppola's Dracula, Coppola "tried to transfuse Bram's Dracula with Anne's Lestat." According to Mathews, "[t]he latest Dracula is sentimental, not scary." In other articles, "The Vampire Chronicles" have been compared to Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" and Louisa May Alcott's penny dreadful novelettes. Sarah Booth Conroy, a writer for the Washington Post, maintains that Rice is the first woman since Shelley and Alcott who has "written so strongly about sex and death." (4) Though information on Rice in the gothic genre was surprisingly minimal, I was fortunate to discover several books of critical essays which focus on horror fiction. One of these, entitled "Writing Horror and the Body: The Fiction of Stephen King, Clive Barker, and Anne Rice," by L. Badley, deals with the ways in which these authors write about the human body in relation to life and death. Though not directly stated here, many believe that King's writing has left an indelible impression on Rice. Some even venture to say that without King, there could be no Rice, since King is considered to be the forerunner of "respectable" horror fiction. Impact of Rice's Work Lastly, I would like to offer an overview of the impact of Rice's work all over the world. It should be duly noted that her books have been translated in eight different languages and that she has become an internationally recognized and respected author. Here in the United States, Rice's popularity is reaching new heights. Since "Tale" was published in 1992, she has released seven additional novels, including: "Lasher" (Knopf, 1993), "Taltos" (Knopf, 1994), "Memnoch the Devil," the final book in the Vampire Chronicles (Knopf, 1995), "The Servant of the Bones" (Knopf, 1996), "Violin" (Knopf, 1997), and "Pandora," released in March (Knopf, 1998). Not surprisingly, each of these novels were or are on Publishers Weekly Hardcover Bestseller List. "Pandora," Rice's latest book, is the first in a new series of vampire chronicles, and is said to be amazing. Though the book has only been out a little over a month, there are already web pages designed specifically for "Pandora." One web page, "The Cabinet of Dr. Casey: Horror Literature News," is an intricately designed page with full quotes from the book and a picture of "Pandora's" main character, David. In addition, Rice's work has evoked a strong response from fans on multiple levels. Artists have recreated the reading experience by making "graphic novels." These graphic novels offer readers an engrossing view of the books, as they include descriptive drawings and paintings of the scenes therein. "Anne Rice's Vampire Lestat: A Graphic Novel Based on the novel by Anne Rice" is one such adaptation. Also, one Newsweek writer cited Anne's work as the reason why the movie of Bram Stoker's "Dracula" deviated so much from the original book--an interesting supposition. Though "Tale" has not been made into a movie, the 1994 adaptation of "Interview with a Vampire" was a success. Apparently, film makers have bought the rights to "The Vampire Lestat" and "The Queen of the Damned," but nothing has come of it thus far. With all of this attention, how does Rice deal with her fans? Quite well, it seems. Rice has set up her own "Official Anne Rice Home Page," where fans e-mail her and she, at times, responds. Another way to appease her fans has been to set up the Anne Rice Fan Line (504-522-8634) and to randomly mail out "Commotion Strange," Rice's personal newsletter. In essence, "The Tale of the Body Thief's" fame reflects the popularity of Rice and the gothic and horror genres as a whole. While "Tale's" booksellerdom may be explained in a variety of ways, one must never underestimate the power of a good storyteller. Since the beginning of time, humans have enjoyed listening to their parents and grandparents' folktales, spending hours mesmerized by the enchanting stories of the past and predictions of the future. Overtime, this tradition was transformed and maintained through literature. Whether the stories are true or fictitious is of little importance to us--what really matters is the extent to which we can become lost in their "reality."
Works Cited
Basic Sources/Search Engines: [All of the following sources were used to complete this assignment.] 1. World cat:subject/author search. Contemporary Authors: Bibliographic Outline: galenet.gale.com 2. Periodicals 1983+: VIRGO 3. Random House: Books@Random: randomhouse.com 4. Database Browsing: Arts and Humanities Search: VIRGO 5. MLA Bibliographic File: VIRGO 6. New York Times Abstracts: VIRGO 7. Netscape Navigator: subject/author search
The Following Sources are Broken Up into Subject Sections:
Introduction: listed in P.2-3
Qualities Reviewers Praised:
Gates, David. "A 200-Year-Old Problem Drinker." Newsweek. 26 Oct. 1992. Johnson, Brian D. "Queen of the Night: Anne Rice has a literary affair with vampires." Macleans. 16 Nov. 1992. Mathews, Tom. "Fangs for Nothing: Coppola's Dracula and Rice's Lestat: cultural icons for an Age of Enervation." Newsweek. 30 Nov. 1992. See, Carolyn. "Vampire Tans! News at 11." L.A. Times. 25, Oct. 1992. Skow, John. "[A Vampire with a Heart]. . .And one with Vanity." TIME. 26, Oct. 1992. Smith, Sarah. "The Vampire Strikes Back." The Washing Post. 30, Oct. 1992. Summer, Bob. "Anne Rice vamps voluptuously: 'The Tale of the Body Thief' will leave her loyal fans wanting more." 4, Oct. 1992.
"Tale's" Popularity:
Book Wire: Author Search: Biography: "www.Biography.com" and "Anne Rice" Performance on Publishers Weekly Hardcover Fiction Bestseller List @ www.bookwire.com/BookInfo.Author
Reasons for "Tale's" Popularity
*personal hypothesis "Anderson County (SC) Sheriff's Satanism Page": www.carol.net/acso/satan/satan.html Anonymous. "5 Teen-Agers Held in Couple's Killing." New York Times. 30, Nov. 1996. Benson, Richard. "A Stake in the Vampire Biz." Guardian. 13, Sept. 1991. Biographical and Genealogy Master Index: VIRGO: www.galenet.gale.com Bookwire.com (same as above) "Brecker's Anne Rice Links- links to the Queen of Gothic Horror." Netscape subject search: Yahoo: Anne Rice. Greene, Bob. "Of 'teen vampires' and trouble public appetites." Chicago Tribune. 4, Dec. 1996. Kroll, Jack. "A Seven-Hour Gay Fantasia: A daring and dazzling play for our time." Newsweek. 23, Nov. 1992. Zganjar, Leslie. " 'Vampire cult' teens found at B.R. motel." Times-Picayun. 30, Nov. 1996.
Rice's Public Persona:
*personal hypothesis and observations Biographical and Genealogy Master Index. (same as above)
"Tale" in Comparison:
*personal observation Corles, Richard. "A Vampire With a Heart. . . ." TIME. 30, Nov. 1992. Conroy, Sarah Booth. from "Bibliographical and Genealogy Master Index. (same as above) Skow, John. ". . .And One With Vanity." TIME. (same as above)
Impact of Rice's Work:
*personal hypothesis Bookwire.com (same as above) Netscape: Subject Search: Anne Rice.

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