Le Carre, John: The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
(researched by Edward Martin)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

David John Moore Cornwell, or John Le Carre (depends on presssing) The Spy Who Came in From the Cold. New York: Coward McCann, Inc. 1964. Copyright 1963 by Victor Gollancz Limited. Parallel First Editions: In Canada: The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Longmans, 1964. pp 256 In France: L'espion qui venait du froid. Gallimard, 1964. pp. 312 p In Spain: El esp‚ia no vuelve. Barcelona, Noguer, 1964. pp. 265 In England: The spy who came in from the cold. London : London: Victor Gollancz,1963. pp. 240 In South Africa: Spioen uit die koue. Johannesburg: Voortekkerpers, 1965 Large Type Edition: The spy who came in from the cold. New York, Franklin Watts, Inc. 1964 1963. pp. 256

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

The first edition is published in trade cloth.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

132 Leaves, pp [4] [1-6], 7-256, [4]

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?


6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?


7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The typeset is well definied, and well spaced, making it easy to read. The lines are spaced one and a half lines apart: the distance between two lines is half the height of one of the lines. The typeset is 95R. The top margin is 25 mm, the bottom is 25 mm, the left is 10 mm and the right is 25 mm. No information is given about the typeface, it is a serif monospaced typesetting. The binding has held up over time and multiple readings. There are wear marks in the corners, and it is obvious that sme pageshave been folded to mark places. The edges of the paper have grown fuzzy. It appears that some food has been left in between the pages, and there is a grease spot that soaked into five pages midway through the book.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper is a good quality, laid woven paper. It has a slight texture, that has grown smoother with age. The texture is now slightly "fuzzy." It has no chain marks, or attempts to duplicate them. The paper is a beige color, and is more white near the center of the page. It appears to have yellowed with time. The margins of the page are often fairly yellowed, especially near the edges of the page, including the spine. The book has a few fingerprints and small stains. The endpapers are a heavier stock that remains whiter, although it displays similar yellowing to the pages. The endpages have a smooth texture.

11 Description of binding(s)

Medium red cloth with crisscross grain. Other pressings are bound in the same cloth, but are in blue or black. The dust jacket is missing from this copy. The covers are unstamped, the spine is stamped in gilt. The spine lists the title, and gives the author as Cornwell, which is a pename of Le Carre's. Other pressings list the author as Le Carre. Transcription of spine: THE | SPY | WHO | CAME | IN FROM | THE | COLD | ___ | CORNWELL

12 Transcription of title page

Recto: The Spy Who Came | In From the Cold | [iron cross] | John Le Carre| Coward- McCann, Inc. | New York Verso: Copyright 1963 by Victor Gollancz Limited. | First American Edition 1964 | All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may no be reproduced | in any form without permisssion in writing from the Publisher. | Published on the same day in the Dominion of Canada by Longmans Canada Limited, Toronto. | Library of Congress Catalog | Card Number: 64-10430 | Manufactured in the United States of America

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

John Le Carre is a psuedonym of David John Moore Cornell.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A


2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

On January 14th, the fourth printing was released, bringing the total number of copies up to 40,000 On March 2nd, the tenth pressing was released, bringing the total up to 123,000 copies The second and third pressings are said to total 25,000 total As of 1966, the last pressing was completed, with a total of 230,000 sold. The pressing number was not listed, but by looking at the number printed per pressing in the previous pressings, I estimate twenty or twenty one total pressings were made.

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

1961, 1986 Heinman/Octopus, London 1963 American Printing House for the Blind 1963 Dell 1963, 1970 Hutchinson Educational 1964 Franklin Watts 1964 Pan, London 1964 The Reprint Society, London 1965 Readers Digest Association 1965. 1966 National Aid to Visually Handicapped 1966 Ballantine Books (Mm) 1975, 1963 Bantam Books 1976 Ulverscroft. Leiscester 1980 Golanze, London 1980 Book Club Associates, London. Part of a compilation 1989. 1963 Penguin Books, Ontario 1990 Coronet 1990 Hodder and Stoughton 1992 Ballantine Books (Hd) 1997 Ballantine Books (Trd Pap)

6 Last date in print?

July 1997, Ballantine Books (Trd Pap)

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

The multitude of publishers and translations make it difficult to determine the total copies sold. The novel is still sold today in paperback form. However, it has been noted that after twelve years 20 million copies had been sold, without mentioning if that is the world total, or the total for one of the publishers. Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: The fiction of John Le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia, PA. 1986

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

In 1964, 230,000 copies were sold in hardback, making it the best selling book of the year In 1965, 1,700,000 paperback copies were sold, disregardin wholesales In 1965, 2 million total paperback copies were sold As of 1965, "official" sales numbered 1,930,000 (Publisher's Weekly)

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Graham Greene says: "The best spy story I have ever read." Alec Waugh says: "This is an absoulte spellbinder." J.B. Priestly says: "Superbly constructed with an atmosphere of chilly hell." A message from the publisher about THE SPY WHO CAME IN FROM THE COLD This brilliant novel adds John Le Carre's name to the microscopically small list of really great writers of espionage fiction. In truth, it does a great deal more It is the spy novel to end all spy novels and dispatches th spun sugar secret agents of recent fame back to their comic opera Graustarks forever. Only Arthur Koestler in "Darkness at Noon' and Graham Greene's "burnt out cases" can compare in quality and content. Therefore, The Spy Who Came In From the Cold is presented not merely as an exceptional thriller but as a novel of the first order, terrifying in its significance, ipressive in its acutality, awesome in its hight political import. It happens also to be immesly thrilling. JOHN J GEOGHEGAN President & Editor-In-Chief

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

After its introduction, the novel was offered with a double money guarantee. If the customer felt that the novel wasn't one of the most gripping and best written spy novels they had ever read, the novel could be exchanged for double its value in other merchandise. Also, for resellers and large orders, a buy ten, get one free offer was availible for much of the first year of publication.

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

(Abridged Tape)The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Niagara Falls, NY: Audio Language Studies, 1985, 1995. 2 sound cassettes (Special Library Edition Tape) The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Newport Beach, CA: Books on Tape, 1977 (Abridged Tape) The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Don Mills, Ont, Canada. Audio Language Studies: Listen For Pleasure, 186, 1985 (Film) The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Paramount Pictures, 1965. Released on VHS in 1996, Released on Videodisk in 1996 (Special Library Edition Tapes) The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Newport Beach CA: Books On Tape, 1977

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

(French) L'espion qui venait du froid. Gallimard, 1964. pp. 312 p (Spanish) El esp?ia no vuelve. Barcelona, Noguer, 1964. pp. 265 (Dutch) Spioen uit die koue. Johannesburg: Voortekkerpers, 1965 (Russian) Shpion, prishedshii s kholada. Lenningrad: Khudozhestvennaya Literatura, 1991 (Manadrin Chineese) Po-Lin tieh hun. Taipei : Tien hsiang chou pan she, 1966 (Japaneese, bunko) Samui kuni kara kaette kita supai. Tokyo: hayakawa Shobao, 197 (Italian) La spia che venne dal freddo. Milano: Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli, 1980 (Basque) Hotzetatik etorri zen espia. Donostia: Elkar 1989 (Korean) Chouun nara esaeo on saeuoai. Saeol: Haemun Choulpoansa (Spanish) El espia que surgiao del fraio. Barcelona, Plaza and Janaes, 1992, 1987 (Russsian) Voaeina v zazerkalse romany. Moskva: eTisentropoligrgfaf, 1994 (Slovenian) Vohun. Ljubljana: Dreavna zaloezba Slovenije, 1983 (Cyrillic Russian) Angliaeiskiaei detektiv. Kiev: Izd-vo Svenas, 1992 (French) L'espion que venait du froid. Paris, Gallimard, 1973 (Spanish) El espaia que surgaiao del fraio. Mexico, DF: Origen-Planeta, 1985 (Chineese) Tsoung han leng chung lai ti chien tieh. Tai-pei shih: Lin pai chu pan she, 1988 (German) Der Spion der aus der Kealte kam: Roman. Reinbek bei Hamburg: rowoholt, 1969

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A


15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

The following novels comprise the "Smiley series." In all of these books, and in The Spy Who Came In From the Cold, George Smiley makes an apperance. Usually, he plays a larger role then he does in The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Call for the Dead (1961) A Murder of Quality (1962) The Looking Glass War (1965) Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1974) The Honourable Schoolboy (1977) Smiley's People (1980) The Perfect Spy (1986) The Secret Pilgrim (1991)

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

The timing of the Spy Who Came In From the Cold's publication was impeccable, and greatly contributed to the books success. Ian Flemming's high successful James Bond novels, and their movie adaptations, had brought the idea of as spy thriller into the mainstream consciousness. However, many people were critical of the easy, rollicking manner by which James is able to get the girl and save the world without ever breaking a sweat. People who knew the truth about the trade and scholars alike rejected the events in the books as fluff. However, while they felt that the novels were romanticized, they had a place in the hearts of many of the intelligence communities, because they elevated the status of such agencies in the minds of the people. Le Carre's work, on the other hand, was denounced and rejected by the intelligence community, in criticism that tend to imply that the novel is too close to reality. The Spy Who Came In From the Cold, with its harsh realities and complex plot, rather than noble platitudes and nifty technology, was able to garner both literary and mass market fame. The novel elevated Le Carre, which is a pen name for David Cornwell, from an obscure figure a name known to millions of households worldwide. Following Flemming's death in 1964, Le Carre was able to claim the throne of the best living spy novelist in a culture hungry for such works. Leamas, the hero of TSWCIFTC, is gritty and lacks the lofty noble ideas of most spy heroes, and even George Smiley, who has a cameo in this novel, and stars in most of Le Carre's other works. This is in keeping with the ideas of the western world of the 1960's, when people were beginning to question ideological viewpoints. Many, like Leamas, were driven to believe that while the west wasn't as perfect as their fathers may have thought, the way of life was the best of the options, and should be preserved. Le Carre was forced to defend his viewpoints in some articles published a few years later, but the ideas seemed to mesh with those of the general public, and accounts for part of the novel's success. In particular, the novel and society both felt the need to explore the fact that while the NATO forces and the Warsaw Pact block had differing ideologies, and both claimed to be more benevolent, they both utilized the same ruthless tactics. David Cornwell was forced to write as John Le Carre (French for the square), because he was employed by MI5 at the time of the book's publication. His past, and the depth of understanding that his novels display, has lead many to question whether he himself has not been involved in the trade. Cornwell flatly denies such accusations, and stated that the work of an author is to extend beyond what they know. Cornwell was able to leave the intelligence service after this books publication, and retired to write full time. Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: The fiction of John Le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia, PA. 1986 Beene, LynneDianne. John le Carre. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. Bloom, Harold. Modern Critical Reviews: John le Carre. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Cobb, John L. Understanding John le Carre. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. Homberger, Eric. John le Carre. New York: Methuen, 1986.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Le Carre generall received very good reviews on the book, which helped lead to it and his success. Most critics felt that LeCarre had an insight into spying, and portrayed a realistic view of the trade, in comparision with Ian Flemming's wildly popular Bond series. SOme within the industry criticizised the work as being totally false,w hile others with CIA connections claimed that the novel was in fact too realistic, and didn't benefit the agencies reputation, which Flemming's novels did. "The Best Spy Novel I Have Ever Read" Graham Greene, dustjacket "What is it really like to be a cold war spy? A deluge of fictional spy thrillers has done little to answer the question. Now along comes a one time Eton schollmaster, David Cornwell, 32, who some three years ago joined Her Majesty's Foreign Office "to get into the swim" and writing under an assumned name seems to have told all in one of the best spy novels ever written. Even if John LeCarre's book isn't authentic, nobody except another certified spy can be sure; and it has the merit of sounding chillingly true." Time, Jaunary 17, pg 16-17 It is an excellent story, almost as well told as they say it is. And yet, though I admired it, I did not like it. The tendancy today is towards heroes (or protagonists, if you will) so unglamorous or downright unheroic that we wonder what they are doing there. This is well enough; it is a fashion; stet. But one tradition ought not to be flouted.... The hero must triumph over his enemies as surely as Jack must kill the giant in the nursery tale. If the giant kills Jack, we have missed the whole point of the story... let the dice be not too heavily loaded against a poor-devil hero; let the angels themselves be permitted to deliver a knockout punch, as once or twice, in a blue moon of undercover affairs, we know that they really do. Times(London), September 13, 1968 Also reviewed: Best Sell, pg 24 July 1, 1964 Christian Science Monitor, pg 9, September 17, 1964 Library J, pg 83, August 1964 Time, pg 83-90 May 29, 1964 New York Times, Bk R America, pg 110, May 9, 1964 Atlantic, 213, March 1964 Best Sell, pg 23 January 15, 1964 Book Week, pg 15, January 26, 1964 Christian Science Monitor, pg 9, Febuary 9, 1964 Critic, pg 22, April 1964 Harper, pg 228, January 1964 Harper, pg 229, July, 1964 Library J, pg 89, Febuary 1, 1964 Library J, pg 89, Febuary 15, 1964 National Review, pg 15, January 14, 1964 N Y review of Books, pg 2, March 1964 New York Times, Bk R, p5, January 12, 1964 New Yorker, pg 39, January 25, 1964 Newsweek pg 63, Febuary 3, 1964

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

The novel has had at least five books written about it, all of them praise the novel and consider it a pivotal piece of American Literature. Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: The fiction of John Le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia, PA. 1986 Beene, LynneDianne. John le Carre. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. Bloom, Harold. Modern Critical Reviews: John le Carre. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Cobb, John L. Understanding John le Carre. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. Homberger, Eric. John le Carre. New York: Methuen, 1986. From Amazon.com It would be an international crime to reveal too much of the jeweled clockwork plot of Le Carré's first masterpiece, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold. But we are at liberty to disclose that Graham Greene called it the "finest spy story ever written," and that the taut tale concerns Alec Leamas, a British agent in early Cold War Berlin. Leamas is responsible for keeping the double agents under his care undercover and alive, but East Germans start killing them, so he gets called back to London by Control, his spy master. Yet instead of giving Leamas the boot, Control gives him a scary assignment: play the part of a disgraced agent, a sodden failure everybody whispers about. Control sends him back out into the cold--deep into Communist territory to checkmate the bad-guy spies on the other side. The political chessboard is black and white, but in human terms the vicinity of the Berlin Wall is a moral no-man's land, a gray abyss patrolled by pawns. Le Carré beats most spy writers for two reasons. First, he knows what he's talking about, since he raced around working for British Intelligence while the Wall went up. He's familiar with spycraft's fascinations, but also with the fact that it leaves ideals shaken and emotions stirred. Second, his literary tone has deep autobiographical roots. Spying is about betrayal, and Le Carré was abandoned by his mother and betrayed by his father, a notorious con man. (They figure heavily in his novels Single & Single and A Perfect Spy.) In a world of lies, Le Carré writes the bitter truth: it's every man for himself. And may the best mask win. --Tim Appelo --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title Book Description "Le Carre is simply the world's greatest fictional spymaster." NEWSWEEK For Leamas the espionage business has become an hermetic, enclosed world, detached from outside reality. He has watched his last agent being shot, crossing from East to West Berlin, and his death marks the end of the Circus' East German network. But Control is planning an operation against the head of East German Intelligence. And Leamas is to be the instrument, set in East one last time.... --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title Customer Comments Average Customer Review: Number of Reviews: 21 roger darrigrand (asherb63@yahoo.com) from MA, USA , October 17, 1999 It was ok, but seemed to forced. Over all I would have to say this book was "alright" at it's best. I'm not a big fan of spy books but if I have to drudge my way through one, this one would be it. It's pretty fast passed and easy reading. It keeps you confussed engough that you want to keep on reading. What I didn't like was that it seemed to forced. The charaters, the side love plot, a lot of the feelings and emotions expressed through the book, just didn't seem like they had to be there. It seemed like LeCarre just thought "it's a spy book, so I HAVE TO have this in it...". It would have been better if LeCarre had completely broken away from the stereotypical spy book as it seemed he was trying so hard to do. --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title Alon Motro from Washington D.C. , October 5, 1999 Get a feel for what spies really go through I think it is one of the best spy books ever written. It brings you into the real world, where things don't always end up, "Happily ever after." Le Carre has a great touch of realism and characterization. Great book! --This text refers to the paperback edition of this title rosseroo@erols.com from Washington, DC , September 9, 1999 Quick and Bleak Considered the best spy novel ever written, this is a quick, bleak book. It is widely praised for its realistic portrayal of Cold War spycraft, and rightfully so. There's hardly any 007-style action, no gizmos, no babes, just an elaborate, nasty plot. More or less makes all other Cold War spy novels redundant in its efficient depicted of an old British spy making his last big gambit before being retired. Tight prose and lots of tension. --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title 21nike@dtgnet.com from South Dakota, USA , August 19, 1999 Le Carre is the man. This is the best spy novel - and one the best books - I have ever read. Le Carre gives a very real look at the world of espionage during the Cold War. A real novel of suspense, deceit, and intrigue. He holds you on the edge of your seat as Leamas tries, for one last time, to "come in from the cold". If you're looking for a fast-paced book, don't look here. You won't find it. And if you can't handle hard-to-follow plots, you won't like this one much either. Reading this novel makes me want to read even more of Le Carre. A must for a "real" spy enthusiast. --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title A reader from Nashville,Tenn U.S.A , July 4, 1999 One of the best I've ever read. Most crafty fiction ever I wish I had not read this spy book first. Now, all others pale in comparison. It is the gratest spy story ever written, The best I have ever read. Skipping the few paragraphs of phylosophy near the end, If you love mystery, or even books in general, your life is not complete untill you read this book. --This text refers to the mass market paperback edition of this title http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0345418336/progressiverevieA/002-6980060-3009042

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

It has been said that it is impossible to objectively review Le Carre's novel The Spy Who Came In From the Cold in the same manner that it is impossible to objectively review Uncle Tom's Cabin, Gone With the Wind, or the Godfather. (Cobbs). The novel, like the others mentioned, has a popular mystique built up around it, but unlike the other novels mentioned, it is less visible in modern society. Spy both shaped and was shaped the 1960's zietgeist. The novel was widely received because of the popularity of the Bond novels, and because of the criticisms of them. The public, whose appetite for spy fiction was whetted by Flemming's novels, hungered for something that was less predictable, and more real. Spy was easily able to fill this role, and established the common view of intelligence agencies that continues today: large, complex plots overseen by manipulative shadowy figures who have cast aside the ideologies that they are trying to protect to get things done. Le Carre is able to weave together elements of history and culture, such as the defection of Kim Philby, the true nature of intelligence work, the growing disillusionment of society and people's remaining feelings of patriotism together into one cohesive novel. Spy was able to transcend the strata of society; the novel is a sterling example of mid-brow literature, which can be read for scholarly merit, yet can entertain the common man. This novel established Le Carre's career, which continues today. Some novels simply are born into a time that is receptive for them. The combination of events in the 1960's made people call for a novel like Spy, and the fact that it was beautifully written allows it to remain popular. Like Gone With the Wind and other classics, the novel brings together the elements of the period, and then establishes itself and its views within those of the general population. Although Spy does not have the name recognition of Gone With the Wind, which is examined today mainly as a movie, not a work of literature, the grim, gritty picture of the intelligence world that it portrays is the one reader's hold in their collective memory.

The novel could not have been written before the Second World War, nor could any modern spy novel. While spies have been used throughout history, large spy agencies and institutions have only been seen since World War II. The United States created an intelligence agency, a precursor to the NSA and the CIA after the First World War, called the Black Chamber. However, it was shut down by Secretary of State Henry L Stimson, who stated, " Gentlemen do not read each other's mail." WWII was won not only because of the atomic bomb, but also because of the breakthroughs in the field of espionage by men like Alan Turing. Turing and others were responsible for breaking many of the German and Japanese ciphers, which allowed the allies to read all of the German and Japanese orders. Admiral Yamamoto was shot down because of one such interception, and countless lives were saved as submarines were attacked and convoys diverted. There is a famous story about how Churchill had to let a town in England be bombed to avoid giving away the secret that the Allies had broken Enigma, the master German cipher. People in both public offices and the private sector began to realize the need for national security, and the need to break the security of other nations. American and British spies and counter-intelligence agencies took on a certain mystique, which would only be heightened by the emergence of James Bond on the screen and in print.


James Bond is certainly one of the most recognizable literary and film figures in modern history. In the fall of 1999, the 19th movie was released to find great success at the box office. However, the popularity of the series today is nothing compared to that of the 1960's, when it was said that "Bondomania" was sweeping the country. American's and Europeans alike love the suave Englishman who comes armed with a license to kill. While Poe is often credited with the first spy story, Fleming is widely considered to be the father of the modern spy thriller. Government officials followed Bond; the spymaster Allen Dulles believed that the "correct" type of novel would strengthen support for his agency. (Homberger). E Howard Hunt was given formal CIA permission to write American spy novels. However, these works were seen thought to possess only pop entertainment value, and were rejected by scholars as being without literary merit. By the time that You Only Live Twice was released, many people were growing weary of the series. The novels are formulaic, and predictable. As the database entry points out "Anthony Boucher of the New York Times called YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE, "a protracted but enjoyable travelogue of Japan, towards the end of which the author reminds himself to insert a some action-adventure? but much of the book seems an exercise in filling pages with no narrative material." (Maloney) Everyone knew that Bond would be attacked but come out fine, that he would get both the nice girl and the evil one sent to kill him, and that the villain would lose. People began to yearn to see what the life of a spy was really like. There was a void in literature, a space for a realistic, intelligent spy novel. The Spy Who Came In From the Cold was able to fill this gap.

The publishers of The Spy Who Came In From the Cold knew that there was a market for a more intelligent spy novel. The quotes on the jacket and the press releases all are from noted figures, such as Graham Green, who were chosen to give the book a literary backing. This backing, and the controversy that the book spawned, were enough to have the book reviewed by academics and serious critics. In turn, as they found that they enjoyed both the story of the book, and its academic merit, they told others about the book. In time, the novel would take its place in the canon, and is now used in many university level classes. (Beene)

The Spy Who Came In From the Cold is acclaimed for being far more realistic than the Bond series. In fact, given the novel's realism and Le Carre's employment in the British intelligence agency MI6, many readers began to suspect that the novel is not merely fiction. The intelligence communities had been pleased with the Bond movies, and with the positive light and publicity, they gained from them. LeCarre's novel met a very different fate. Le Carre was greeted by a contemporary with cries of "You bastard. You utter bastard" at a state dinner. (Homberger 27). Richard Helms, former chief of the CIA detested the novel, not for its lack of credibility, but because of its portrayal of spymasters deceiving their own operatives. This condemnation furthered speculations that this was a problem in the intelligence community. Ironically enough, Kim Philby, whose deception as a double agent was famous, and helped lend credibility to the novel, regarded the level of deception as too great, and unrealistic to anyone in the community. Yet, he praised the work for being a far better read and more intelligent then the Bond novels. (Homberger 29). The controversy helped book sales, because people were curious what about the book the CIA hated so much, and whether it was true, or an elaborate ruse. Ultimately, it may not matter how realistic it actually is, because people thought it was realistic, and that caused them to buy novels. This is a truism of advertising; perception is reality. In this case, the events of the book rang true to the readers, and thus became truth for them, which helped sell the book to the curious.

The realism that people see in the book is caused, in a large part, by the feel of the novel. The novel is always characterized as feeling gritty and cold, even in comparison with other Le Carre novels. J.B. Priestly is quoted on the jacket saying "Superbly constructed, with an atmosphere of chilly hell." The novel was in fact criticized for being too cold, and for not allowing the "good guys" to win. Critics were especially harsh on the ending. The end of the novel is quite bleak, and is generally seen as either the best or worst thing aspect of the novel.

In the end of the novel, Leamas and Liz die after they realize that they have been set up. Leamas is the protagonist of the book, the "spy who came in from the cold." However, he is sent back out on one last mission, to assassinate Mundt, the German official responsible for revealing all of Leamas' agents. Rather than killing him directly, Leamas tries to implicate him. He plants evidence that Mundt has betrayed Germany and become a British agent with Mundt's immediate inferior, Fielder. However, the deception is uncovered, and Fielder, Leamas and Liz are condemned to execution. However, it is revealed that this is what Control, the enigmatic head of MI6, wanted to happen. Mundt is actually a double agent, and Fielder had gathered evidence implicating him before the novel begins. Leamas is actually being sent to discredit Fielder, and to cause him to commit treason by attacking his superior, Mundt. Leamas meets Liz when he begins his fall from grace before his insertion into Germany. The meeting is not coincidental, unbeknownst to both; they are steered together to provide evidence that can later be used to prove that Leamas is still an agent, not a defector. Liz is a member of the communist party, or as she puts it, a believer in history. Despite the obvious ideological differences, the two fall in love. Liz is brought to Mundt's trial without knowing what is going on, and inadvertently exposes that Leamas was sent to discredit Mundt. Leamas and Liz have their moment of epiphany when Mundt frees them. However, they are gunned down as they sprint for the wall; their fate is similar to that of Leamas' last agent, who is also shot crossing the wall in the first chapter.

This ending is in keeping with the changes going on in society. America's youth was disillusioned by Vietnam, and some felt that "the man" was keeping them down. This idea of an overarching central government is reflected in Control, the spymaster who pulls Leamas' strings. While the government in the novel is in fact British, the messages and structure are similar to that of the United States. American's have always overlooked the fact that Bond is a foreigner, and easily make the same leap with Le Carre. The feel of the novel and its government matches the growing discontent with the United States that many felt. At the same time, Leamas, like many in the country, did not want to abandon the old ways, because he felt that British capitalist democracy was the best system overall. At the time of the book's publication 1964, the Hippies were still a fringe group, and while people were becoming disillusioned, wide scale protest against the government was rare. The novel has elements of martyrdom and disillusionment, which have rung true with Americans since the Lost Generation. The loss of the Fifties ideal is similar to the loss of Romanticism that followed the First World War, and can be seen in the novel. The gritty, cold feeling that older critics attacked matched the growingly jaded American psyche.

The novel is not without some romanticism. Leamas seems to be in a state of perpetual adolescence, which calls out to the reader, and lets many identify with him. He is like a grown up Peter Pan, a man who lives his life as an adventure. Leamas has become disillusioned with the ideas and morals of the society that he is protecting. He no longer toes the party line, or espouses its greatness. Yet, he continues to work to save England because he feels its system is best. This is similar to many young adults, who are jaded and cynical of the government; yet do not want to live under another system. Leamas, like many middle aged men, and in fact most of society, lives a very stressful life. He and Control work out a plan for him to let go, and begin a downward spiral, falling from grace. Cobbs has pointed out that this does not seem entirely planned. Rather, Leamas, like many of us, has always been fighting the urge to let go, and degenerate. Many readers identify with this urge, and want to be able to throw away the rules and conventions of the world, and seek base pleasure. Also, like many in adolescence, Leamas encounters his first true love. In this case, he knows that Liz is a communist, and probably being used, with or without her knowledge, by the party. Despite himself, he begins to really care for her, and urges her not to follow him as he begins the final fall that precedes his false defection. However, she does follow, and nurses him back to health when he falls ill. Afterwards, he realizes that he loves her, and wants to protect her from Control, the head of MI6 and the Germans. He threatens both groups, saying he will not go along with their plans if they involve her. This idea of a first love and the power of love is an American ideal. Leamas remarks about how all of life seems beautiful to him, and how he knows he owes it all to Liz. Again, this sentimentality endears the reader to the novel, and is responsible for much of its success.

The tragic flaw that would ruin Leamas' innocence in the reader's eyes is that he is being sent as an assassin. Were he to kill Mundt, regardless of the reasoning, the reader would not look on him with the same admiration and affection. Le Carre spares Leamas this fate by having him be unable to complete his mission. He further atones for his mission when he turns back over the wall, and jumps down to find Liz. The two had been running from Germany, and were attempting to cross the Berlin Wall. However, she was shot and fell down while running. Leamas had the chance to save himself, as the Alec Leamas in the beginning of the book would have done. Instead, he goes back to check on his love, and sacrifices himself. This sad ending was responsible for much of the contemporary criticism of the novel. However, it is this ending that truly validates Leamas in the reader's eyes, and allows him to atone for the grim acts he committed as part of his tradecraft. This ending is reminiscent of that of Romeo and Juliet; two lovers lie dead in a tragedy. The reader's empathy for Leamas and Liz contributed greatly to the novel's success; their affection for Leamas helped to sell many copies. Some elements of the book mightseem fantastic, if they did not closely mirror those of real life. Kim Philby was a deep cover straight penetration agent who funneled secrets to the Russians during the Second World War. He was highly placed and ranked within the British Intelligence services, and eventually served as liaison between the CIA and MI6, where he directly affected the Korean War by telling Stalin that the United States would neither use atomic weapons, nor continue the fight north. When he defected in 1963, the world was in shock that such a highly placed individual had been working for the enemy during his entire tenure. Mundt is also revealed as a foreign agent, who is in an even more damaging position as the head of counter intelligence. In some ways, this role soothes British and American consciousness, because people want to feel that the American and British agencies are as competent as their Russian counterparts. With the memory of the recent defection fresh in the minds of readers, the events of the book ring true and are somewhat reassuring. Readers are pleased to find that the British have so stealthily infiltrated the Germans, if only in fiction. The discovery of the defection, and that Leamas was there to save Mundt, not kill him, as Leamas thought, is a sharp plot twist. However, it is no more wrenching then learning of Philby's betrayal. This defection and others remain in the memory of contemporary readers, so the events portrayed still help the novel ring true. This element of truth and realism, which was noticeably missing in the Bond novels, is often accredited as one reason for the book's success.

The Spy Who Came In From the Coldwas also made into a successful movie. The movie is less known then the novel, but is usually mentioned in any advertisements or reviews. It received good reviews, and continues to have a cult following which can be seen on the Internet. The movie helped prolong the high sales of the book, which had already sold millions of copies before the movie's release. The movie, the novel, and adaptations of the novel into a book on tape are all readily available today, and continue to sell well. The feedback forum on Amazon.com is full of good reviews. One of the reasons for the novels continuing sales is that it was the first novel of its kind. As such, it shapes the reader's view of the spy world and of bleak conspiracies such as those popularized by Oliver Stone and the X Files. Also, the book has been accepted into the canon, and is required reading at many universities in both canonical and popular literature courses. Le Carre continues to be a successful author, and many of his books generate controversy. These controversies draw more attention to LeCarre and his novels. Spy is mentioned on the covers or dust jackets of most of his novels, and is frequently mentioned in the short biography that accompanies many reviews. LeCarre is himself in demand as a speaker and for interviews, and again, Spy is usually mentioned in connection with him. Therefore, anyone looking to find out about him and his works, or anyone who enjoys his later novels is going to look first to Spy for more information. This, in turn, continues to prop up sales.

The Spy Who Came In From the Cold was a novel whose time had come. People were ready for a serious spy novel; they were interested in spies, but wanted something more intellectual. Philby's defection had left the world in shock, and alerted people to the role of double agents and penetration agents. The novel's early success came because of its association with James Bond, and because it fulfilled society's desires. It continued to sell well because it is well written, and remains interesting to readers today. Spy was shaped by the 1960's and weaved together many collective threads and memories. In doing so, it established its place in America's collective memory, and endured today, alongside other novels with cultural trends, like The Godfather or Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Barley, Tony. Taking Sides: The fiction of John Le Carre. Open University Press, Philadelphia, PA. 1986 Beene, LynneDianne. John le Carre. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992. Bloom, Harold. Modern Critical Reviews: John le Carre. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. Cobb, John L. Understanding John le Carre. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. Homberger, Eric. John le Carre. New York: Methuen, 1986. Hagerty, Nate. The Russia House http://www.engl.virginia.edu: 8000/courses/bestsellers/search.cgi?title=The+Russia+House Le Carre, John. The Spy Who Came In From the Cold. Coward McCann, New York, 1964.

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