Sheldon, Sidney: Memories of Midnight
(researched by Lauren Venturatos)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Author: Sidney Sheldon Title: Memories of Midnight: The New Novel Published in New York by William Morrow and Company, Inc. Copyrighted in 1990 by Sheldon Literary Trust

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

The first edition was published in half cloth, or "half linen," a popular binding method employed in the 19th century. The book has a grey cloth spine and blue paper corners.

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

The first edition has 200 leaves: [8] 9-15 [16] 17-91 [92] 93-153 [154] 155-171 [172] 173-209 [210] 211-227 [228] 229-263 [264] 265-273 [274] 275-279 [280] 281-293 [294] 295-299 [300] 301-311 [312] 313-317 [318] 319-335 [336] 337-339 [340] 341-343 [344] 345-351 [352] 353-359 [360] 361-377 [378] 379-381 [382] 383-399 [400]

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

The book is not edited or introduced. However, on page two the publisher did include a list of other works by Sidney Sheldon. In addition, on page five there appears a dedication which reads, "To Alexandra with love." Finally, on page seven, the author chose to open his novel with a quotation by Sappho, "Sing me no songs of daylight,/ For the sun is the enemy of lovers/ Sing instead of shadows and darkness,/ And memories of midnight."

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

The book is not illustrated.

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

Upon inspection, I find the type easy to read and well spaced out. Each page is 234 mm. in length and 150 mm. in width. The text, from the title or author's name across the top of the page to the page numbers at the bottom of each page, measures 181 mm. In addition, the text is 102 mm. in width. The type measures 94 mm. per 20 lines of text, thus the type face, being Roman, gives one a type face measurement of 94R. The type face for the text of the story has serifs, however the title or author's name written across the top of each page, the page numbers, the writing upon the spine, the dedication, the chapter titles, as well as chapter descriptions, are all done in type face without serifs.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper used to create the first edition is offwhite with a rather coarse texture. The ends of the leaves were cut to a uniform length and meet perfectly when the book is closed. The paper has held up well and seems strong. Unlike the paper used for the printed text, which is acid-free, the end pages are done in the same blue paper used to line the cover of the book.

11 Description of binding(s)

The book is bound in in light grey linen texture cloth which is placed over the brilliant blue paper protecting the rest of the book's cover. Upon the grey spine, the title, Memories of Midnight, the author's name, Sidney Sheldon, and the publisher, Morrow, are stamped into the binding in gold letters without serifs.

12 Transcription of title page

Front side of title page: Sidney Sheldon| THE NEW NOVEL| Memories of Midnight| WILLIAM MORROW AND COMPANY, INC.| New York Back side of title page: Copyright c 1990 by Sheldon Literary Trust| All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any| form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, re-| cording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permis-| sion in writing from the Publisher. Inquiries should be addressed to| Permissions Department, William Morrow and Company, Inc., 105 Madison| Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016.| Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, it is the| policy of William Morrow and Company, Inc., and its imprints and affiliates| to have the books it publishes printed on acid-free paper, and we exert our| best efforts to that end.| Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data| Sheldon, Sidney.| Memories of midnight / Sidney Sheldon.|p. cm.| Sequel to: The other side of midnight.| ISBN 0-688-08488-5| I. Title.| PS3569.H3927MA 1990| 813'.54--dc20 90-5871| CIP| Printed in the United States of America| First Edition| 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10|

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

The manuscript's whereabouts are unknown at present.

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

A note of interest: Upon the dustcover of the novel, it states that Memories of Midnight is "a completely independent novel," however it continues the story begun in Sheldon's earlier work, The Other Side of Midnight.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

The original publisher, William Morrow and Company, Inc. also published the following: A book club edition, 280 p.; 22 cm. This edition was published in New York by Morrow and copyrighted in 1990. A large print edition, 464 p.; 24 cm. This edition was published in New York by Morrow and copyrighted in 1990. isbn #: 0688100872 A large print book club edition, 538 p.; 22 cm. This edition was published in New York by Morrow and copyrighted in 1990.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?


5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

Memories of Midnight was also published by the following companies: Fontana, a division of HarperCollins, published an edition of Memories of Midnight in 1990. This edition contained 393 pages. They also published an edition containing 400 pages in 1991. isbn #: 0006178693 The Collins company also published an edition of Memories of Midnight in 1990, containing 304 pages. The London division of Collins published Memories of Midnight in 1990. This edition has 400 pages, large print, and 24 cm. isbn #: 0002236389 and 0862204607 (London edition)

6 Last date in print?

Memories of Midnight is still in print (as of February 2000). Three separate publishing companies are currently producing the book: Warner Books, Incorporated began publishing Memories of Midnight in October of 1991, and is currently publishing a reprint of their mass market paperback edition. This edition contains 416 pages. isbn #: 0446354678 Doubleday Direct began publishing Memories of Midnight in June 1993. Today, they are currently publishing a trade cloth edition of 288 pages as a part of their Sheldon Continuity Series. isbn #: 1568650299 Morrow/Avon began publishing Memories of Midnight in September of 1990. They are currently publishing a trade cloth edition in English. isbn #: 0688084885

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

According to the publisher, Morrow, the number of copies of Memories of Midnight shipped and billed during the 1990 calendar year were 1,040,217.

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)


9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

"Memories of Midnight ($21.95) by Sidney Sheldon. This novel by the bestselling author tells of one woman's fight against her destiny, taking her from the Mediterranean to post-War London in the process." LG main. First serial to Good Housekeeping. Author tour.

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion


12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Memories of Midnight was made into a television miniseries and aired on November 25 and 26, 1991. The movie was directed by Gary Nelson. Furthermore, the screenplay was written by Sidney Sheldon and the original music composed by Ron Ramin. The characters were portrayed by Jane Seymour as Catherine, Omar Sharif as Constanin Demiris, Paul Sand as an idiot savant, Taro Meyer as the vengeful Greek wife, Thaao Penghlis as a rival tycoon, and Theodore Bikel as a double-dealing attorney. The miniseries was reviewed by Ray Loynd in the Los Angeles Times on the above date. The book was also recorded in three audio tape editions: Sheldon, Sidney. Recuerdos de la Medianoche. Mexico, Studio City, Ca.: SonoLibros (Dove Books on Tape), 1993. Sheldon, Sidney. (traslator: Elizabeth Pena). Memorias de Medianoche. Beverly Hills, Ca: Dove Audio, 1991. (abriged) isbn #: 1558004610 Sheldon, Sidney. Memories of Midnight. Studio City, Ca.: Dove Books on Tape, 1990. (2 sound cassettes, 180 min.) isbn #:1558002650

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Spanish editions: Recuerdos de la Medianoche, published by Emence in Barcelona in 1990 and 1995. This edition has 339 pages, 18 cm. isbn #: 8478882375 Recuerdos de la Medianoche, published by Emece Editores in Buenos Aires in 1990 and 1992. This edition has 333 pages, 20 cm. isbn #: 9500409968 Dutch edition: Herinnering aan Middernacht, published by De Boekerij in Amsterdam in 1992 and 1995. This edition has 308 pages, 18 cm. isbn #: 9022518914 Persian edition: Khatirat-i nimih-shab, published by Intisharat-i Dursa in Tihran in 1997. This edition has 467 pages, 22 cm. isbn #: 9646104118 Vietnamese edition: Ky*ucnuadem, published by Vannghe Ho in Chi Minh in 1992. Italian edition: Ricordi di Messanotte, published by Sperling and Kupfer editori, in Milan in 1990. This edition has 331 pages, 22 cm. isbn #: 8820010917 Korean edition: Translated by Kong, Kip'un pam ui ch'uok, published by Soul T'ukpyolsi in Kimongsa in 1990 (1991 printing). This edition has 437 pages, 23 cm. Chinese edition: Wu yeh meng hui, published by T'ai-wan Chung-hua shu chu in T'ai-pei shih in 1991. This edition has 360 pages, 21 cm. isbn #: 9574301141 Japanese editions: Akegata no Yume, published by Akadem i Shuppan in Tokyo in 1992 (1993 printing). This edition has 20 cm. isbn #: 4900430188 (volume 1) isbn #: 4900430196 (volume 2) Akegata no Yume. (translated by Yasutaka Kino and Tatsuyuki Tenma) This edition was published by Akadem i Shuppan in Tokyo in 1994. isbn #: 4900430242 (volume 1) isbn #: 4900430250 (volume 2)

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A

An exerpt from Memories of Midnight appeared in Good Housekeeping v.211 in September of 1990. It began on page 46 and was illustrated.

15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

Memories of Midnight is a sequel to Sheldon's earilier work: Sheldon, Sidney. The Other Side of Midnight. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1974.

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

A prolific writer of novels that critics have dismissed as "potboilers and airport novels," (brc) Sidney Sheldon is an author with a great talent to entertain and engross his readers, creating novels read by millions in "more than 180 countries and in 51 languages" ( In 1990 he completed his tenth book, Memories of Midnight, published by William Morrow and Company, continuing a relationship between author and publishing house that has been amiable and succesful throughout his career. According to Sheldon, his novels usually take twelve to eighteen months to complete, working from nine a.m. to six p.m. each day, seven days a week (ae). With Memories of Midnight, Sheldon followed his typical plan in the creation of a novel. According to Contemporary Authors, "the typical Sheldon potboiler features a beautiful and determined heroine enacting revenge on her enemies," and Memories of Midnight is no exception. Sheldon explains his use of the strong-willed female protagonist as an "[un]concious decision," further stating that he "[doesn't] believe in the dumb blonde myth...the strong personalities... [and] physical [attractiveness of his characters]...reflect the women [he has] known in his life" ( Based on the trials and tribulations of its protagonist, Catherine Douglas, Sheldon constructed this novel, and others, following a similar pattern. He begins each novel with a "single character, and the story evolves from that character" (brc). In addition, as in case of Memories of Midnight, Sheldon tries "to write about glamorous places, because [he thinks] readers like to live vicariously through the characters" (pr). Memories of Midnight, set in Greece, is an example of Sheldon's desire to set the scene for his plots in exotic locales. Furthermore, Sheldon writes solely about locations that he has visited or experienced first hand. He feels that it would be a betrayal to the reader not to do so and would take away from the "reality" of the novel. Sheldon claims that "accuracy and authenticity are very important to [him] in [his] novels, because a reader can always tell if an author is 'faking it'" ( Memories of Midnight was written as a sequel to Sheldon's wildly popular bestseller, The Other Side of Midnight, his second novel, published in 1974. The book had such a strong impact on one reader, that sick in her hospital bed, she picked up the book and read it all the way through. "She got so caught up in the characters and the story that she forgot about herself and felt ready to begin facing life again" ( As is evidenced by this story and the great popularity of his work, Sidney Sheldon has the ability to reach and affect many people through his written words. When The Other Side of Midnight ran wild on the New York Time Bestseller list, spending 52 weeks on their chart, Sheldon realized the potential for a bestselling sequel. Therefore, Memories of Midnight hit bookstores sixteen years later. Unfortunately, although "the book managed to tie up plot lines from the first [novel], the rule that sequels are seldom as effective as their predecessors definitely came into play" with Memories of Midnight (brc). Although critics saw Memories of Midnight as "ineffective," the book was quite popular with readers, selling 1.1 million copies. Due to its popularity, the novel was transformed into a four-part miniseries in 1991. One of the main characters of both The Other Side of Midnight and Memories of Midnight, Constantin Demaris, a Greek tycoon, was based by Sheldon on Aristotle Onassis. Sheldon approached his family about to ask whether the man would like to play Demaris in the movie version of The Other Side of Midnight. However,Onassis's ensuing illness prevented an official answer from being necessary (unichat). Sidney Sheldon executive produced the miniseries version of Memories of Midnight, assuming a role he was thoroughly familiar with from his many years as a television producer and writer, for shows such as I Dream of Jeannie and The Patty Duke Show ( In addition to writing Memories of Midnight during this year, Sheldon was also busy in terms of his personal life in 1989. At age 72, he married Alexandra Kostoff, age 46, a "former child actress and advertising executive," in Las Vegas (Time). For Sheldon this was his second marriage, his first wife, Jorja, passed away in 1985. Sheldon also received one of his many awards the following year in 1990, the same year in which Memories of Midnight was published. The American Academy of Achievement presented him with the Golden Plate Award ( This prestigious honor is a "salute to excellence" that "[brings] together adult leaders from the great walks of life to share their wisdom and experience with 450 honor students from across the nation" (UW). This award provided Sheldon with recognition of his work promoting literacy, as well as his popular and best-selling writing. *Note: An overall biography of Sidney Sheldon's entire life can be found in the entry for his novel, Nothing Lasts Forever. Sources: 1., Time Warner, copyrighted 2000 ( 2. Gale Literary Databases: Contemporary Authors, Volume 33, 1991 (ca) 3. Biography Resource Center: Contemporary Popular Writers, St. James Press, 1997 (brc) 4. www.universal sheldon.html (unichat) 5. "Married." Time 23 Oct. 1989: 116. 6. News@UW-Madison (UW) 7. The Professional Response: Biography Resource Center, Dec. 1998 (pr) 8. Author Extraordinaire!: Sidney Sheldon, Chat Transcripts, October 28, 1998 (ae)

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

With every one of his novels hitting the number one position on the bestseller list, Sidney Sheldon is an author who knows how to construct a novel that will appeal to his readers. However, the admiration of one's readers does not mean that an author's book will be well received by critics and the media. In response to the wildly popular novel The Other Side of Midnight, Sheldon wrote the sequel, Memories of Midnight, resurrecting characters and tying loose ends. Despite the best selling ranking of Memories of Midnight and the pleasure it gave its readers, the novel did not fare as well with critics who chastized the writer for his predictable prose and over the top character development. Therefore, Memories of Midnight is the perfect example of the type of novel that satisfies audiences, yet lacks the literary might to appease critics. In the reviews written at the time of the book's publication, Memories of Midnight is most usually described by critics as a "fast beach read or airplane book, which the author's fans should love," but lacking in "subtlety [of]...character development and plotting" (Booklist, Publisher's Weekly). However, the reviews seem to vary in harshness depending on the source. When the publication reviewing the novel was written for readers who are likely to be Sheldon fans, the condemnation is more carefully hidden among references to his appeal and attention holding prose. On the other hand, in periodicals written for more "high brow" connoisseurs of literature and for those within the publishing community, such as Publisher's Weekly, the critique of Sheldon's story construction and writing is much more pronounced and is joined by far fewer complimentary statements. Giving Memories of Midnight a review grade of "B," People Weekly was perhaps the easiest to please of the magazines and newspapers that reviewed the novel. Understanding the genre in which Sheldon is placing this work, the reviewer, Sara Nelson, states that "as adventure plots go, this one -- full of near-death escapes, staged suicides, and red herrings -- isn't all bad" (People Weekly). She continues by commending the novel, claiming that "this is the kind of book that keeps readers turning pages" (People Weekly). Most reviewers agree that Memories of Midnight is a novel that is capable of leaving its readers content and satisfied, yet most find more to criticize in the text than did Nelson. Like People Weekly, Booklist describes the book as "vintage Sheldon," a statement that can be discerned as positive or negative depending on one's opinion of the author's skills as a creator of stories. Despite the fact that the reviewer describes Memories of Midnight as a novel "guaranteed to draw the reader in," he concludes that in the end, the reader is left without much more than a "body count" (Booklist). Expressing an opinion similar to that provided in Booklist, The New York Times Book Review acknowledges the fact that "implausible plots and one-dimensional characters abound" in Memories of Midnight. However, the reviewer cannot help but go further to recognize the "gusto" with which "Mr. Sheldon manages to propel his saga to a satisfying climax, tying up all the loose moral ends... [resulting in] a diverting piece of escapist commercial fiction" (New York Times Book Review). Finally, in two more critical reviews, published in Time and Publisher's Weekly, the reviewers fault Sheldon more for the "drivel" he produced in composing Memories of Midnight. The review grade given by Time's writer, John Skow, is a "C," however, Skow expands upon the assigned letter grade by warning that "travelers who stick with Demiris and Catherine till the end can endure whatever misery the airlines throw at them" (Time). In a similar fashion, Publisher's Weekly, a journal printed for those in the publishing industry, those who understand what the characteristics of great fiction are, presented Memories of Midnight with a "C" review grade. The reviewer, Sybil Steinberg, cuts into Sheldon's prose, describing the work as "crudely carved" and "totally farfetched" (Publisher's Weekly). However, due to her role in the publishing world, Steinberg concedes that "despite [the novel's] clunky dialogue and gargantuan lapses of logic, the bloody action and sweet turnaround in the final payback are likely to net Sheldon his usualy spot on the bestseller list" (Publisher's Weekly). Following Steinberg's prediction, Memories of Midnight did in fact make it to the annual bestseller list and found a way into the hearts of its readers. As evidenced by the above reviews, novels that are popular with readers are not always a hit with critics. Consequently, despite the above reviews condemning the book's writing, as prophesied by the reviewers, Sheldon's readers did enjoy the book immensely and bought 1.1 million copies in the first year, allowing Memories of Midnight to find its place upon the bestseller list. Sources: "Memories of Midnight." Booklist July 1990: 2042. Jones-Davis, Georgia. "Storytellers: New in September." Los Angeles Times Book Review 19 Aug. 1990: 8. Buck, Mason. "Memories of Midnight." New York Times Book Review 19 Aug. 1990: 18. Steinberg, Sybil. "Memories of Midnight." Publisher's Weekly 6 July 1990: 57. Nelson, Sara. "Memories of Midnight." People Weekly 8 Oct. 1990: 23. Skow, John. "Memories of Midnight." Time 15 Oct. 1990: 86.

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Due to advances made in e-commerce and industry based solely on the Internet, has recently been able to provide its customers with book reviews written by fellow consumers and readers. Therefore, in 1997, 1998 and 1999, customers who read Memories of Midnight placed their opinions about the book on Amazon's website, providing any prospective reader or buyer with the opinions of their peers. Although this group of nine reviewers cannot be taken as representative of the entire community of readers who read Memories of Midnight, all but one of the reviewers gave the book the site's highest rating of five stars and praised the work and its author. Therefore, it appears that Memories of Midnight pleased its audience and provided them with a satisfying experience. Reviewers classify Memories of Midnight as "the kind of book you will not want to end" (a reader from Va.). In general, the readers represented on this website loved Sheldon's work, claiming that "he is the best writer to have ever lived" (a reader from Ireland). In their eyes, Memories of Midnight is a book they would "read again and again," in fact, one reader, Elvis Ngassa, states that "[he] first read [Memories of Midnight] in 1994 and read it many times afterward" (a reader from Texas, Elvis Ngassa). The readers were enthralled by "the suspense woven through the [novel]" (a reader from Reston). Furthermore, they reveled in "the [intensity of the] story that makes the reader feel every emotion that the characters are going through;" a sentiment quite contrary to the New York Times Book Review writer who found Sheldon's characters "one dimensional" (CJ Auto). In addition, unlike critics who found Sheldon's prose "uninspired, cartoony, and predictable," Edward Brown found the book "skillfully plotted...[and] ingenious" (Los Angeles Times Book Review, Edward Brown). Furthermore, Memories of Midnight left Brown "breathless" (Edward Brown). In fact, even the one reader who did not enjoy the book as much as the others, M. Boucher, he had to concede that although The Other Side of Midnight, "a classic," was not in need of a sequel, Memories of Midnight "is still a fast-paced thriller and...a good read" (M. Boucher). Therefore, even those not fully enthralled by this novel, did find within the pages an entertaining story full of suspense. Unlike the critics who countered the pleasurable aspects of reading Memories of Midnight with critiques of the author's writing style, creation of characters, and ability to construct situations based in reality, readers found the novel exciting and captivating. They were able to see past any of the critics' complaints to find a novel that kept them turning pages and wanting to re-read the work again and again. In addition, most claimed that they also would suggest it to others, one way in which Memories of Midnight gained bestseller status. Overall, the reader response is an enthusiastically positive one in which the readers applaud the efforts of Sidney Sheldon and the novel he wrote. Sources: website, Memories of Midnight reviews by: a reader from Ireland (Jan. 24 1998), M. Boucher (Sept. 23 1998), T. Weakes (Oct. 13 1998), a reader from Reston (Feb. 10 1999), a reader from Texas (Mar. 22 1999), Edward Brown (Oct. 16 1997), a reader from Va. (Oct. 19 1997), CJ Auto (Aug. 15 1997), and Elvis Ngassa (Aug 15 1999).

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Bestsellers come in many forms. In each book there is a mixture of elements present in other bestsellers, yet it is the composition of this mixture that makes each novel its own entity. In Sidney Sheldon's Memories of Midnight, the author employs characteristics found in other bestsellers to produce a novel that molds these categories into one story line, creating one popular book that exemplifies each of these components. Memories of Midnight is an example of four types of bestsellers: books that are popular and sell well due to the author's name, "beach reads" or "airplane books," novels that explore the David and Goliath theme, in which a subordinate overcomes a more powerful adversary, and finally, sequels to books that are themselves bestsellers. However, the first three of these categories are not employed solely in Memories of Midnight. Sheldon consistently uses a familiar pattern when constructing a novel in which the same mixture is repeated to produce popular books time and time again. Thus, many of Sheldon's best-selling works have a similar construction: a young heroine struggling against a powerful nemesis, emerging victorious. Like Sheldon, other authors not only write works that can be placed in the same categories, but also follow prescribed patterns in their novels, such as John Grisham, whose best-selling books have for the most part conformed to a legal theme, focused on a segment of an attorney's life. Memories of Midnight, Sheldon's 1990 best-selling novel, is one which proves to be an example of several types of bestsellers. In addition, it is a part of Sheldon's repertoire of novels that combines these types repeatedly to produce popular fiction that the public is looking to buy. Memories of Midnight was published in 1990, the tenth book written during Sidney Sheldon's successful career. All of Sheldon's previous nine books had reached the number one position on The New York Times Bestseller List. Therefore, Sheldon's name was one associated with books that had sold well in the past, and consequently with the assumption that his past books were popular with the readers that bought them. In addition, due to the wide circulation of his previous books, as well as the fact that so many were bought, Sheldon had built up a fan base. These fans enjoyed his work and looked forward to the next book he was about to publish. In this way, the recognition of Sheldon's name and his reputation became a major selling point for Memories of Midnight. One critic of the novel, Jill Sidoti, writing for Booklist, deemed Memories of Midnight "vintage Sheldon and guaranteed to draw the reader in." By her designation, the critic assumes that readers will understand what "vintage Sheldon" means when applied to a book and will have an awareness of the work before ever picking up the book, due to the author's name. Upon the dust cover of the first edition, Sheldon's name appears prominently, in fact, it is larger than the actual title and is placed above it. As this presentation suggests, it seems that the publishers marketing Memories of Midnight understood the importance of Sheldon's selling power and the reader's and book buyer's response to his name. Thus, the mere mention of Sidney Sheldon in connection with his new novel aided it sales. Sheldon is not alone in his ability to benefit the selling of his book with his name and past success. Other authors and moviemakers have also profited by this phenomenon. One popular example is John Grisham. Since he began writing novels, many of his books have become bestsellers for a variety of reasons. Yet, one factor remains the same, the popularity of his novels has given his name resonance in the ears of book buyers. Therefore, they are lead to believe in the familiarity of his works and to count on the fact that the past success of his books will translate into a good buy this time around. Similarly, Danielle Steel, another popular novelist, has been able to craft many bestsellers. Although their sales are not completely dependent upon the value of Steel's name, her authorship does in fact attract past readers, as well as those who are familiar with the type of novel she produces. Therefore, her name is so well known that it is associated with the genre of easy-to-read romance and can persuade a shopper to select her work over another's based on the impact of her name on the cover. The same tactic can be employed successfully in other media as well. However, instead of the author's name having resonance, a starring actor's name on billboards and on movie advertisements is often enough to rope in viewers. On such star is actress Julia Roberts. Although she does movies with differing plot lines, her audience is often the same, filled with those who are attracted to any movie with which she is associated. Thus, a producer can expect high ticket sales by the exposure of her name and face on ads before and during the picture's run at the box office. Consequently, when a novelist or artist's name becomes recognizable, a familiarity and comfort comes to book buyers and moviegoers upon confronting their works. Consumers assume they know what they are getting when purchasing a novel by a well-known author or seeing a movie including their beloved star. However, despite the immediate popularity of the novel or movie due partially to the author or star's name power, the book or movie tends to sell well directly following publication or release, tapering off as the advertisement dies and the shelf life lengthens. Therefore, the name of an author or star persuades readers or movie viewers to spend money on their product because it leads them to expect they will be as pleased as they were when reading previous works or viewing the star's last movie. Additionally, they many also presume that the success of this author or actor is due to a popular style of writing or portrayal of a character that will satisfy them as it did others. Bestsellers are not always books that can be classified as great literature. In some cases, the pure ability to entertain is a component contributing to the novel's success. Often readers want to be gratified without feeling intellectually challenged. For this reason, books classified as "beach reads" or "airplane books" have done well in sales. Readers on vacation or taking a flight want to find a world to slip into for a brief time; however, they do not want to struggle with the text, they want to easily glide through it. Therefore, this type of fiction often uses simple or easily understood language, singular and uncomplicated plot line, one time frame to follow, with few, if any, flash backs or forwards, and stock characters that are easily grasped. In addition, it is often easy to recognize a "beach read" by its cover art. Most books in this category eventually come in paperback and are produced in a manner that implies that they are not being produced for an educational purpose or for the intelligencia of society. Many times, the cover is raised, often picturing a racy artistic rendering, and the inner pages are made from a lower quality paper. Memories of Midnight is an example of such a "fast beach read or airplane book, which the author's many fans should love" (Booklist). Books with similar characteristics to Memories of Midnight and also fall into this category please readers due to their ability to entertain without mental strain. In addition, they take the reader to another place while immersed in activities that do not need much attention: lying on the beach, sitting in an airplane, or waiting at the doctor's office. Therefore, Memories of Midnight's sales figures were aided by the fact that this book was seen by readers and promoted by its marketers as an easy-to-read pleasure, a book well suited for shoreline and plane ride alike. The category containing these entertainment based books bound for travelers and beach dwellers constitute their own genre. Also included in this collection of bestsellers are books written by authors such as Danielle Steel and Barbara Taylor Bradford. In each novel, the reader knows that they will find an engaging story without the trappings of an intellectual book that taxes the mind. Steel consistently pens novels that gratify readers, yet critics or consumers rarely regard these books as noteworthy literature. Instead, Steel produces stories that place the characters within a difficult situation from which they find a way to better their lives and selves, ending the novel on a positive note. Two books that exemplify these traits are Fine Things and Wings. In Fine Things, a man left with two young children after the death of his wife must find a way to go on with life and succeed. Likewise, in Steel's Wings, her heroine, Cassie, a pilot, must fight the bonds of "unthinking male prejudice" emanating from her husband and father, in the end finding true love with another ( In Bradford's A Woman of Substance, a young store owner pulls herself up by her own bootstraps and succeeds in founding her own chain of department stores. Thus, the plots in "beach reads" are exciting and engaging, yet not difficult to predict or overly upsetting to one's emotions. The books usually end well, without too much heartache or deep thinking. These books for travelers and those on vacation are perfect for the mind in repose searching for a little entertainment on the road. Therefore, this type of novel will never be without a steady consumer base due to the readers on whom they rely. When one reads a book, one tends to place oneself in the position of the characters, to identify with someone portrayed within the text. For this reason, books that adopt the David and Goliath theme often resonate with readers. Readers tend to identify with David, the underdog, the solitary man who tackles a large, powerful rival and succeeds. Though this does not happen too often in everyday life, these novels make it appear that it is possible for one person to make a change, to end the dastardly deeds of a greater, more commanding individual, industry, or corporation. In Memories of Midnight, Sheldon's heroine, Catherine Douglas must conquer the man who is trying to end her life, Constanin Demiris. Demiris, a rich and influential Greek ship owner, plays with Catherine as if she were a puppet, for her amnesia permits him to toy with her life. Yet, in the end, Catherine escapes his murderous plan, and another rival Demiris procured earlier in the novel causes his demise. Thus, Sheldon turns the David and Goliath biblical tale into a modern day story, allowing his reader to become Catherine, if only for a short while, conquering those more powerful than she. The David and Goliath story line is not unique to Memories of Midnight. Due to its popularity among readers, many movies have been made and books written about this particular theme. One writer who has tackled this subject is John Grisham. Two of his recent novels, The Firm and The Rainmaker, have explored the need for one man to stand up to an entity that is larger than he in order to protect either his rights or those of a group in peril. In The Firm, a young lawyer must escape the dangerous clutches of the law firm for whom he works, due to the fact that they are threatening his very existence. In addition, Grisham's The Rainmaker, portrays a lawyer who must help a devastated family tackle a corrupt insurance company, gaining victory for the oppressed. Likewise, two movies have come out within the last three years that have, by their popularity in the theaters, proved the successful nature of the David and Goliath plot when it is marketed to the public. A Civil Action, based on Jonathan Harr's popular novel of the same title and directed by Steven Zaillian, was released in 1997. The main character is an attorney who must aid the town of Woburn, Massachusetts and eight leukemia-stricken families who reside in the town. The lawyer assists them in their legal suit against a local food processing plant for the cancer-causing solvents that they have been responsible for implanting into the city's water table, nobly succeeding in the end. Similarly, Julia Robert's latest role as the title character in Erin Brockovich, directed by Steven Soderbergh, is one in which she portrays a down-on-her-luck single mother who begins working with an attorney. In her new position, she aids a town in their attempts to sue a chemical plant that has poisoned their water supply causing the population to develop cancer and other life threatening diseases, finally winning the town residents a large sum of money and a sense of retribution. According to the movie's website advertisement, "[Brockovich] brought a small town to its feet and a huge company to its knees" ( In each of these popular book and movies, the reader or audience member has the opportunity to see big business or a powerful nemesis fall due to the diligence and resolute nature of an individual. This individual is one they can imaginatively replace with an image of themself, a single person conquering a stronger and more influential entity for the improvement of all involved. In this way, the David and Goliath theme attracts viewers and readers due to its ability to empower them with the idea that they too can succeed in a contest with one who has more resources and better opportunity, increasing the sales of books and movies based on this subject. Although Memories of Midnight was a novel popular in its own right, its sales and customer appreciation were assisted by the fact that it was a sequel to The Other Side of Midnight, a bestseller sixteen years earlier. The prequel established a fan base, as well as a ready set of consumers poised to purchase Memories of Midnight upon its release. By creating a second novel to tie together loose ends left by the preceding book, Sheldon resurrected characters well received by his readers and provided them with a final conclusion in which the protagonist, Catherine Douglas, achieves freedom and Demiris, her evil adversary, meets his ruin. Therefore, readers are supplied with a satisfying end to the plot line begun in The Other Side of Midnight, calling them back for one more jaunt with the characters they left at the end of the prequel. The capacity of a prequel to help the sales of a subsequent novel is a documented effect due to the success of movie and book sequels in the history of literature and filmmaking. Likewise the phenomenon is evident in literary and film series, in which readers return to the same characters in each novel and movie and are attracted to the subsequent story by the plot of the last book or motion picture in the sequence. One such series is the collection of Nancy Drew mysteries by Carolyn M. Keene. In each novel, Keene revives her ingenious heroine and places her in the middle of a new suspenseful detective case. Due to the return of the familiar and popular character and the pleasure of the last book in the series, readers continue to buy Keene's books due to their experiences with her previous works. In the same way, the incredibly popular movie Star Wars, directed by George Lucas, created a sensation that translated into fans that returned for each subsequent movie that followed in the series. Therefore, the ticket sales for Return of the Jedi and The Empire Strikes Back were benefited by the previous success of the original Star Wars. The continuation of characters and the finalizing of plot twists and turns in each episodic film kept the audiences returning to theaters to buy tickets to the sequels. This same pattern occurs with literary sequels such as Pollyanna Grows Up, the novel following the bestseller Pollyanna, and Scarlett, the sequel to Gone with the Wind. With the introduction of Pollyanna to American audiences in the novel bearing her name, readers fell in love with the endlessly optimistic and cheery young girl and her "glad game." Thus, when the sequel to the best-selling original, Pollyanna, was published, the prequel's readers also purchased the following novel, Pollyanna Grows Up. Audiences were anxious to catch up with the character they had come to love in the original and looked to find a similar emotional experience in the sequel, leading them to acquire a copy of Pollyanna Grows Up. In a similar fashion, the success of Margaret Mitchell's classic, Gone with the Wind, induced readers to desire a copy of the book's sequel, Scarlett, written by a separate author, Alexandra Ripley. Like Memories of Midnight, Scarlett was not reviewed well by critics. However, Scarlett's readers were dissatisfied with the novel as well. Plagued by the love fans of Gone with the Wind had for the first novel, Scarlett was unable to please readers who felt they truly knew the characters from their encounter with them in the prequel. Memories of Midnight profited not only from the success of its prequel, but also due to its ability to please readers. However all three novels, Pollyanna Grows Up, Scarlett and Memories of Midnight achieved higher sales figures on account of the great success of their prequels. Although Sheldon has only written one sequel in his career, he has composed many bestsellers. To facilitate the writing process, Sheldon has invented a formula for success, a way of constructing novels with similar components and differing details that please readers every time. As in Memories of Midnight, Sheldon uses a blueprint in several other novels. The blueprint guiding the creation of his novels is made up of a female protagonist struggling against a more powerful enemy, over whom she emerges victorious. Three of Sheldon's best-selling books are part of his body of work that follows this prescribed pattern: Rage of Angels, A Stranger in the Mirror, and Master of the Game. Like Memories of Midnight's Catherine Douglas, Rage of Angels focuses on the character Jennifer Parker, an intelligent young lawyer, who must fight against the forces of organized crime within the courtroom. Similarly, in A Stranger in the Mirror, a beautiful young actress struggles against a controlling superstar actor in the midst of their love affair. Finally, Sheldon's Master of the Game follows the actions of protagonist Kate McGregor as she attempts to encourage the growth of the business that she has inherited from her father, "[stopping] at nothing to preserve" it against all odds ( Thus, Sheldon, finding categories that have proved a successful combination in his novels, continually adds new characters and details according to a set pattern, thus producing bestsellers. The formula has been established as a good prediction of consumer desire due to the fact that novels following the blueprint have reached bestseller lists consistently. Sheldon is not the sole author to have profited from the use of a formula when writing a novel. Another modern day popular fiction author, John Grisham, has composed many best-selling novels by standing by his perpetually successful legal theme. Most of Grisham's books focus on an attorney's life and trials during an important court case or during a time of strife. Novels that are part of this pattern are works such as The Firm, The Rainmaker, The Client, and A Time to Kill. All rely on Grisham's previously planned recipe for success, basing their plot on a skeletal framework employed in several of his works. Similarly, Tom Clancy has produced several bestsellers concentrating on political issues, secret government agencies, such as the CIA, and the actions of one man who attempts to follow the right path, battling evils such as the international drug trade and terrorism. Three of Clancy's novels are examples of his use of this concentration on certain aspects, constituting a best-selling framework: Clear and Present Danger, Patriot Games, and Debt of Honor. All three deal with the aforementioned themes, looking for increased sales figures based on the previous success of Clancy's pattern. In this way, Sheldon, Grisham, and Clancy use their knowledge of the type of book readers are looking for to construct novels that follow set guidelines, repeatedly producing bestsellers. Despite the fact that most authors sentimentally regard their best-selling novels as individual compositions in their own right, these books do have characteristics similar to other works. These affinities are based upon the fact that bestsellers constitute categories of popular works. In the case of Memories of Midnight by Sidney Sheldon, the author combined categories, creating a novel that is essentially an amalgam of successful groupings of novels that sold well to the public. These categories include books that are successful due to the author's name recognition, "beach reads," and novels centering on the David and Goliath theme. In addition, this was not the first time Sheldon employed this recipe. In several other books by the author, a similar framework can be seen underlying the differences in detail, setting, and character construction. Sheldon's young heroines always find a way to conquer their more commanding enemies, prevailing in the end. From examining Sheldon's body of work, one can see that bestsellers, while spanning many different settings, styles, and assemblages of characters, can be gathered into coherent groupings. These groupings are signs of the parts of novels that please book buyers and send them to bookstores searching to purchase a new work. The categories into which Memories of Midnight fall are only a sampling of the many types of bestsellers on the market. However, it is through the study of these categories that one discovers what makes a book sell well, as well as what made Memories of Midnight reach the number one position on The New York Times Bestseller List. Sources: (Works Consulted) (Cast and characters) (synopsis of:) Wings, Fine Things, Rage of Angels, Stranger in the Mirror, Master of the Game, Clear and Present Danger, Patriot Games, Debt of Honor, A Woman of Substance, The Rainmaker, and A Civil Action The Bestseller Database (at Wings entry by Erika Karnaszewski, Fine Things entry by Robyn Galbavy, and Nothing Lasts Forever entry by Carol Zurawski Sheldon, Sidney. Memories of Midnight. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1990. Sidoti, Jill. "Memories of Midnight." Booklist July 1990: 2042.

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