Southern, Terry and Mason Hoffenberg: Candy
(researched by Anthony Martin)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

G. P. Putnam's Sons New York 1964 copyright: 1958, 1959, 1962, 1964 by Terry Southern and Mason Hoffenberg

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?


3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

116 leaves: [8] 11-224 [2]

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?


6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?


7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

22 cm. Typography is readable, reasonable presentation, but not particularly attractive. The printing is reasonable, but not outstanding.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

roughish texture, no watermarks or chain lines visible, possible slight discoloration with age

11 Description of binding(s)

cloth, purple, dotted-line grain; black endpaper over the leading edge of front and back cover. Inside cover, red endpapers. On spine (in gilt): Candy [ornament] Southern [small ornament] Hoffenberg [small ornament] [small ornament] Putnam Note: the small ornaments on the spine are also printed on the chapter pages

12 Transcription of title page

[page 1; ie fol 1 recto] CANDY [page 2; ie fol 1 verso] A NOVEL BY | Terry Southern and Mason Hoffenberg | G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York [publisher's ornament] [page 3; ie fol 2 recto] Candy | [ornament]

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings


15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

Note: This is the first U. S. edition. Candy was originally published in Paris, France by the Olympia Press (1958), ascribed to "Maxwell Kenton" (a pseudonym for Southern and Hoffenberg) ; and republished, under the title Lollipop in 1959 and 1962. Flaps of the dustjacket carry a blurb (unsigned, but likely written by the authors), brief biogs of the authors, and following information: Jacket design by Ben Feder, Inc. Jacket photo by Harry Hess and the publisher's address The back of the dustjacket has blurbs from Dwight MacDonald, Karl Miller, Herbert Gold, Francis Wyndham, and James Jones.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

Paperback edition: January 1965 (Published by Putnam, and distributed by Dell) There were further paperback editions by Putnam/Dell in 1972 and 1983. The latter was described as "a new edition", but this has not been checked.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

At least 6, possibly 10 or more. On July 27, 1964, Publishers Weekly reported that 6 printings, "totalling 90,000 copies" had been sold. The total for the year 1964 was 140,000 and the book remained on the bestseller charts for a few weeks into 1965. Assuming 15,000 copies per impression, there may have been 10, or possibly more.

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

Paris: Olympia, 1958 (pseudonymously by "Maxwell Kenton") Paris: Olympia, 1959 (under title Lollipop) Paris: Olympia, 1962 (as Lollipop) Burbank, Ca.: Ampoc, 1965 North Hollywood, Ca.: Brandon House, 1965 Evanston, Ill.: Greenleaf, 1965 New York: Lancer, 1965 London: Bernard Geis, 1968 (abridged edn.) London: New English Library, 1969 (abridged edn.) London: New English Library, 1970 New York: Penguin, 1985 Sevenoaks (UK): New English Library, 1986 New York: Book of the Month Club, 1994 New York: Grove Press, 1996 (same edn as Book of the Month Club, 1994) London: Bloomsbury, 1997.

6 Last date in print?

As of October 2002, Candy is still in print by Grove Press of New York.

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

unknown The only figures available are given below for the years 1964 and 1965 below.

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

1964: 140,000 (Publishers Weekly January 18, 1965) 1965: 1,500,000 in paperback (Hackett, 80 Years of Bestsellers, p.193)

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

Publishers Weekly February 3, 1964 half-page ad: photo of cover "An underground classic in its first American edition CANDY A NOVEL BY Terry Southern and Mason Hoffenberg Banned in France and heatedly whispered about on both sides of the Atalantic, this wild, wickedly funny satire is 1964's answer to The Ginger Man and One Hundred Dollar Misunderstanding. The beautiful, big-hearted, tiny-minded heroine is Candy Christian, a contemporary Candide. The saga of her misadventures is sidesplitting. "CANDY is the funniest book I've read in a poon's age." - DWIGHT MACDONALD. "A work of genuine literary merit; I like its satire, its grotesqueries and its inventiveness." - ROBERT B. SILVERS, Editor-in-Chief, N. Y. Review of Books. "A subtle and hilarious satire on sex. To discuss CANDY as a pornographic book would be as crass and unfounded as to catalogue Gulliver's Travels as a :'travel book'." - FRANCIS WYNDHAM, Literary Editor, The Queen (London). Major Advertising and Promotion. April, $5.00" Publishers Weekly october 5, 1964 full-page ad photo of girl from cover [in box] "Darling Mr. Putnam, I just don't think it's fair darn it! Here I've been #1 best seller in TIME magazine and #2 in the NEW YORK TIMES, and you've sold 112,000 copies of me, and good grief! it never would have happened without those marvelous, marvelous booksellers! I mean, gosh, what can I do to thank them? Love and kisses, Candy [below box] "... and so, with love and kisses from CANDY, we're offering 1-FREE-FOR-10 through October 31st CANDY by Terry Southern and Mason Hoffenberg $5.00

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion


12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Motion picture, title Candy, 1968: dir. Christian Marquand; prod. Robert Haggiag; screenplay Buck Henry; starring Charles Aznavour, Marlon Brando, Richard Burton, James Coburn, John Huston, Walter Matthau, Ringo Starr, Ewa Aulin. Sound recording: Candy. Studio City, Ca.: Hawkeye Entertainment, 1989. Distributed by Dove Books on Tape. Read by Terry Southern.

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

(Title Candy except where otherwise stated.) (French Trans) MontrÈal: Editions de l'Homme, 1968. trans by Georges Virieu. (This translation also published in Paris (various publishers and dates)) Candy: romanzo. (Italian trans.) Milano : Longanesi, c1965 (stampa 1968) Edition: 5. ed. 217 p. ; 19 cm. Series: Olimpia (Portuguese trans.) Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1970-79? trans by Nelson Rodrigues 138 p. 21cm. (Croatian trans.) Rijeka : Otokar Keröovani, 1970. trans by Omer Lakomica (Finnish trans.) Helsinki : Weilin + G??s, 1969. trans by Juhani Koskinen. (Norwegian trans.) Oslo : Pax ; [Copenhagen] : I kommisjon for Danmark, Borgen, 1970. trans by Tone Bull. (Spanish trans.) Mexico, Editorial Grijalbo. 1964 trans by Adrian Celaya This translation was also published Barcelona, 1966. Yi ge tian zhen n¸ hai de yu hai fu chen. (Chinese trans) Sanchong shi : Xin yu chu ban she, 1995. trans by Saren zhu ; Chen Guanyue yi.

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A


15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A


Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Mason Hoffenberg (1922-1986) After military service in Europe in World War 2, and some years in Greenwich Village, Hoffenberg, like Southern and many other American writers of the period, used the G. I. Bill to fund a return to Paris, where he found work in a number of literary and journalistic connections. Before Candy, he wrote two other pornographic novels for the Olympia Press: Until She Screams (?d; before 1958), under the pseudonym Faustino Perez; and Sin For Breakfast (1957), under the pseudonym Hamilton Drake. Both books are described by Michael Perkins as skilful parodies of the pornographic genre, being self-referential and extremely ironic explorations of the genre. (Sin for Breakfast was reissued by Olympia Press, London, in 1967; by Sphere, London, 1971; and by Grafton, London, 1989.) However, persistent problems with drugs and alcohol seem to have vitiated Hoffenberg's output. He later became part of the entourage around Bob Dylan and the Band, living in the Woodstock, N. Y. area for much of the 1960s and 1970s. In an interview conducted for Playboy in 1973, Hoffenberg expressed some bitterness towards his erstwhile co-author, while admitting to still living on "the Candy money." Terry Southern (1924-1995) After attending Southern Methodist University, Texas, and service in World War 2, Southern pursued his education at the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and then at the Sorbonne, University of Paris. He remained in Paris for most of the 1950s, as part of an expatriate literary community, publishing a number of short stories, and writing his first novel, Flash and Filigree (1958). While in Paris, he co-authored the novel Candy with Mason Hoffenberg (accounts vary as to the division of responsibility). On his return to America in 1959, Southern published another novel, The Magic Christian (1959, 1960), and began a productive period as an essayist and fiction writer. In 1964, Candy was published by Putnam's and became an instant bestseller. Previously, Southern had collaborated on the screenplay of Dr Strangelove with director Stanley Kubrick and Peter George, the author of the original novel. Arguments later emerged over the major role of each of the writers: Southern said that at least he had given the script its humor. (Hill, 127) Further screenplay work included The Loved One (1965), Barbarella (1968), and Easy Rider (1969): the latter movie, again, was contentious, as the co-writers, Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper, argued that Southern's contribution to the eventual movie was minimal. (Southern claimed that the most memorable portions of the film, including scenes featuring the lawyer character (played by Jack Nicholson) and the acid trip sequence, were his; certainly, neither Fonda nor Hopper, who both refused to share the eventual massive returns of the film with Southern, ever wrote anything in a similar style.) However, later in the 1960s, Southern's success began to recede, with movie versions of Candy (1968), The Magic Christian (1971) and the publication of his fourth novel, Blue Movie (1970) and other projects failing to repeat his previous success. Southern did some lecturing and desultory writing in the ensuing decades, but only one late novel, Texas Summer (1992), a semi-autobiographical look at his boyhood. Sources cited: Michael Perkins, The Secret Record: Modern Erotic Literature (New York: William Morrow, 1976), pp. 80-83. Mason Hoffenberg interview with Sam Merrill, Playboy (November, 1973): online version on website on The Band, url: (accessed October 28, 2002) Lee Hill, A Grand Guy: The Life and Art of Terry Southern (New York: Harper Collins, 2001)

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Very soon after its initial American publication in May 1964, Candy received a number of positive reviews in the influential sectors of the print media. Although it was alleged that the New York Times and the Chicago Tribune refused to carry advertisements for the book, (Life 8/21/1964), the New York Times Book Review carried a major review, by Conrad Knickerbocker, on May 17, covering two-thirds of a page. Knickerbocker describes the book as a "marvelous prank": ... "a sternly written moral satire on sexual attitudes that might have indeed been a comic classic, had the authors seen fit to develop their ideas much beyond the cafe-table stage." The review goes on to associate Southern with the other emerging novelists, such as Pynchon, Heller and Barth. On May 14, the New York Review of Books had a review by William Styron, describing the book as "wickedly funny ... and morally bracing". These influential reviews set the tone of the immediate critical reception of Candy, by emphasizing the novel's satirical mode: in the midst of the great "porn debate" of the early and mid-sixties, the critics of the major New York publications asserted Candy's relevance as not a "dirty book" (which had been, frankly, Southern and Hoffenberg's original intention), but as a moral, ironic commentary upon the sexual mores of contemporary society.

Another influential review of the novel upon its release came from Nelson Algren, in The Nation of May 18, 1964. Over three and half pages, Algren reviews Southern's literary career to date, asserting that "[a]fter Candy, sex in America is never going to be quite the same", and comparing Southern, favorably, with his cohort: Farrell, Bellow, Mailer, and Styron. (It might be observed that Southern was fortunate in that at least two major reviews, by Styron and by Algren, were written by friends.)

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

After the mid-sixties, however, as Southern moved into Hollywood screenwriting, there were few further critical responses to Candy. Upon its first publication, in a considerably reduced and censored form in Britain in 1968, a number of reviews returned to the question of "pornography." For example, R. G. G. Price, in the weekly magazine, Punch of September 18, 1968, found the book relatively innocuous and "lighthearted", but queried its status as "satire". The leading London critic, Ian Hamilton, in The Listener of September 12, 1968, observes that the book's humor invalidates the "high art" argument that had been proposed in favour of the publication of such books as Lady Chatterley's Lover and Selby's Last Exit to Brooklyn: its very lack of seriousness, Hamilton suggests, lets the guard down.

Nevertheless, interestingly, Hamilton views the book as an attack on "American" values: "god-fearing, ad-enslaved, over-analysed America ...'the book has a message after all!'." On the other hand, in one of the very few academic articles written on the book, William Walling insists on the intensely, and nostalgic background to Candy as a product of the American 1950s, within the context of the apparent sexual constraints as expressed in the popular cultural forms of the Eisenhower era. Walling's analysis, provocative and intelligent, was a signal exception to the absence of interest in Southern's work by academic authors up to the end of the 1990s.

Southern's late publications, and death in the 1990s gave rise to a number of reconsiderations of his work, but almost all of these retrospectives and obituaries seemed to consider the writer as having failed to fulfil early promise, and his novels as of little interest, other than as signposts to a lost generation. However, Southern's death in 1995 coincided with an awakening of interest in the "sixties", and as Lee Hill's biography, A Grand Guy, and numerous obituaries attest, Southern himself has become the object of interest, as one of the cultural icons of the decade. (Note, for example, how many 1990s' reviews and obituaries begin with the observation that Southern is one of the figures on the cover of the Beatles' Sergeant Pepper.) Such works as the forthcoming The Candy Men, by Southern's son, Nile Southern, may (at the time of writing in November 2002) lead to a reconsideration of the slight, but significant oeuvre of the author.

Sources cited: William Styron, 'Tootsie Rolls' [Review of Candy] New York Review of Books, May 14, 1964. Conrad Knickerbocker, 'Candide as Co-ed' [Review of Candy] New York Times Book Review, May 17, 1964. Nelson Algren, 'The Donkeyman by Twilight' [Review of Candy] The Nation, May 18, 1964. Ian Hamilton, 'Cutting Candy Dead' [review of Candy, British edition], The Listener, Sept. 12, 1968. R. G. G. Price, [review of Candy, British edition], Punch, Sept. 18, 1968. William Walling, 'Candy in Context,' in Comedy: New Perspectives, ed. Maurice Charney [New York Literary Forum, vol. I] New York: Spring, 1978. Lee Hill, A Grand Guy: The Life and Art of Terry Southern New York, 2001.

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

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