Waller, James Robert: The Bridges of Madison County
(researched by Carey Karpick)

Assignment 1: Bibliographical Description

1 First edition publication information (publisher, place, date, etc.)

Warner Books New York April, 1992

2 First edition published in cloth, paper, or both? If both, simultaneous or staggered?

The first edition was published in cloth

3 JPEG image of cover art from first edition, if available

4 Pagination

91 totalleaves i-xii 1-171

5 Edited or Introduced? If so, by whom?

Not edited or introduced

6 Illustrated? If so, by whom?

Photographs by Robert James Waller

7 JPEG image of sample illustration, if available

8 General physical appearance of book (Is the physical presentation of the text attractive? Is the typography readable? Is the book well printed?)

The text is attractive with photographs of bridges leading each chapter. The typography is readable.The chapter headings are in a darker italicized text, and
the first page of the chapter is written in one point larger italicized text as well.

9 JPEG image of sample chapter page, if available

10 Paper (Assess the original quality of the paper used for the book. Is the paper in the copy or copies you examined holding up physically over time?)

The paper is an off-white color and is smooth with cleanly cut edges. It is durable and seems able to hold up well over time.

11 Description of binding(s)

The binding is
a deep blue color in contrast to the brown cover. The title, author and publishing house are embossed in silver on the binding. The binding is glued and seems durable and able to withstand use.

12 Transcription of title page

The Bridges of Madison County/Robert James Waller/Warner
Books/Time Warner Company

13 JPEG image of title page, if available

14 Manuscript Holdings

Information not found

15 Other (typograpical information from title page, etc.)

The image of the title page was reduced in order to save space. There is one chapter in the book which is printed in different type than the other chapters. Most chapters are printed in san serif type with italicized chapter headings.

Assignment 2: Publication and Performance History

1 Did the original publisher issue the book in more than one edition? If so, briefly describe distinguishing features of each (illustrations, cover art, typography, etc.); if not, enter N/A

Warner Books published a paperback version in 1997. The paperback version was identical to the hardback in its illustrations, cover art etc.

2 JPEG image of cover art from one subsequent edition, if available

3 JPEG image of sample illustration from one subsequent edition, if available

4 How many printings or impressions of the first edition?

5 Editions from other publishers? If so, list their dates and publishers; if not, enter N/A

No, Warner Books has been the only publisher, with a hardcover and a paperback version

6 Last date in print?

Bridges of Madison County is currently (April 1998) still in print in paperback and hardcover copies

7 Total copies sold? (source and date of information?)

50 million have been sold world wide 4,362,352 sold in the US

8 Sales figures by year? (source and date of information?)

9 Advertising copy (transcribe significant excerpts, briefly identify where ads were placed)

10 JPEG image of sample advertisement, if available

11 Other promotion

12 Performances in other media? If so, list media, date, title, production information; if not, enter N/A

Amblin Entertainment came out with a Steven Spielberg movie, directed by Clint Eastwood version of Bridges of Madison County in 1995. The film starred Clint Eastwood as Robert Kincaid, and Meryl Streep as Francesca Johnson.

13 Translations? If translated, give standard bibliographic information for each translation. If none, enter N/A

Bridges of Madison County has been translated in 25 languages (no record was found of each language listing)

14 Serialization? If serialized, give standard bibliographic information for serial publication. If none, enter N/A

15 Sequels/Prequels? Give standard bibliographic information for each. If none, enter N/A

There were no sequels or prequels

Assignment 3: Biographical Sketch of the Author

1 Paste your biographical sketch here (maximum 500 words)

Robert James Waller was born August 1, 1939 to Robert and Ruth Waller in Indiana. Robert did not start out his career as a best selling novelist, nor did he ever really intend to become one. He received a PhD from Indiana University in 1968, and went on to become a professor of economics, applied math and management at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls from 1968-91. From 1979-85, he was dean of the business school at UNI-Cedar Falls as well. He married his wife, Georgia Ann Weidemeier during these years and together they have one child Rachael. His first published work came in 1988 from Iowa State University Press, entitled "Just Beyond the Firelight: Stories and Essays", followed by three more essay collections through Iowa State University Press. As well as being a prominent professor dean, Waller was also well known for his eloquence in guitar playing, his song-writing ability and his keen eye for photography. In fact, his love for photography was the impetus for his soon to be best seller, and the novel he is perhaps best known for, Bridges of Madison County. Waller, like the main character in the book, Kincaid, was out shooting the covered bridges of Madison County, Iowa when he got the idea for the book. The story in the book came out of his photographs, and the memory of a song he had written earlier about a woman named Francesca, and the dreams of a better love and life she had. Waller completed the manu script only 14 days later. Bridges of Madison County was awarded the American Booksellers Book of the Year Award, and the Literary Lion Award from the New York Public Library in 1993. Bridges of Madison County spent around 150 weeks on the New York Times bestseller list. The novel was followed up by a cassette recording of Waller playing his guitar in "The Ballads of Madison County." In 1995, the novel was adapted into a screenplay starring Meryl Streep and Clint Eastwood put out by Amblin Entertainment. Warner Books, the publisher of his first novel, readily accepted the manuscripts to his 2nd novel, Slow Waltz in Cedar Bend, his 3rd novel, Border Music and his 4th novel, Puerto Vallarta Squeeze. His agent, Aaron M. Priest can be reached through mail at 708 Third Ave, 23rd floor, New York, NY 10017. Waller himself can be reached through e-mail by use of the Warner Books homepage, which includes a capacity to send email to authors.

Assignment 4: Reception History

1 Paste contemporary reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Bridges of Madison County is hailed on the Warner Books homepage as a "blockbuster bestseller in the US, Great Britain Japan, Germany--everywhere!" It is lauded as spending almost 3 years on the New York Times Bestseller list and having over 9 million copies in print. This site calls Bridges of Madison County the "bestselling novel of the century." Of course, this is all coming from the publisher itself of the book. Other reviews have not been so kind. It would seem logical to expect that a book that caught the publics attention so highly would also have received rave reviews from book reviewers. However, Bridges of Madison County received some very negative reviews in its early sales life. Reviews for Bridges of Madison County were found in: Entertainment Weekly-August 27, 1993 Newsweek-Sept. 7, 1992 Library Journal-March 1, 1992 v117 New York Times Book Review-March 28, 1993 Los Angeles Times Book Review-Jan. 17, 1993 " "-April 18, 1993 " "April 12, 1992 Washington Post Book Review-April 5, 1992 Working Woman-Feb. 1994, v. 19 US News and World Reports-August 9, 1993 New York Times Magazine-July 5, 1993 Ladies Home Journal-May 1993 Business Week-March 1, 1993 People Weekly-Nov. 16, 1992 Publishers Weekly-July 20-21, 1992 The negative reviews ran the gambit of reasons for disliking this small novel. Library Journal found it a "contrived, unrealistic dialog," but still one that "detracts from a well plotted quick and pleasant read. For larger pop fiction collections." The Washington Post also found the storyline "trite." This reviewer had a hard time believing in Robert and Francesca's love affair, and stated that they were acting like teenagers. Michael Harris in the April 12 edition of the Los Angeles Times likened Bridges of Madison County to "A Coke that's been opened a while ago, sweet but flat." He also found the couple's love affair unbelievable. "Nothing ever threatens the couple's convictions that their affair is something mystical, beyond the common range of experience." He also seemed to take personal offense at Waller combining his journalist expertise with a fantasy-laden love tale. "A scaffolding of hard, journalist detail surrounds the romantic scenes, in which Waller doesn't hesitate to use the novelists privilege of entering his characters minds-or to write, at times, like a Harlequineer. Other reviewers had strong feelings against the love affair. Pauli Carnes, a female reviewer for the Los Angeles Times felt it resembled pornography for women. She harbored great distaste for the escapism and fantasy found in the novel, and felt it was the "story of a life wasted." Other reviewers read the same story and found positive things to say. Newsweek seemed to capture the essence of Bridges of Madison County in its review in telling the story of how Bridges was a handselling champion. They acknowledged that the reviews in the beginning were "lukewarm", but attest that small booksellers loved the book, and ensured that the public would have the opportunity to buy the book. The numbers that have been sold seem to attest to the public's enjoyment of it, even if the professional reviewers have been disillusioned. Newsweek tells the story of one bookseller who gave a money back guarantee on the book...and only one customer used it. Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times Book Review also seemed to realize that the popularity this book had with the public may have been more important than the reviewers. He described Bridges as as a "sleeper...a nice little book that takes off slowly, without benefit of splashy advertising, book- club promotion or a flood of rave reviews, but that ends up on the best-seller list the old fashioned way-because readers fall in love with it and tell their friends." This review seemed to tell the truth, after all, Bridges was a major bestseller even with the negative reviews. The story was adopted for a screenplay, and even featured on an Oprah Winfrey show where Oprah went on location at one bridge and spoke to guests about their "real-life love affairs."

2 Paste subsequent reception history in here (maximum 500 words)

Waller published a series of books very quickly after his first success, Bridges of Madison County. Therefore, after even the first 2 years after the publication, reviewers were focused on his new works. Certainly after 5 years post-publication, there were no more reviews on his first novel.

Assignment 5: Critical Analysis

1 Paste your critical analysis in here (maximum 2500 words)

Bridges of Madison County is a slender, quick-read love story that was written in only 14 days by author, professor, artist and musician Robert James Waller. Waller got the idea for the story about Francesca, an Iowa housewife and her week-long love aff
air and life-long love of the traveling photographer Robert Kincaid, after traveling around Iowa himself photographing the bridges. These pictures are used in the book as chapter headers. Bridges of Madison County was published by Warner Books in hardba
ck in April of 1992. Warner set out to publish only a modest number of the book for it's first printing, and the immediate reception to the book was only lukewarm. Reviews were mixed, to say the least, and in 1992 it held an average position of 11.1 on
the Bestsellers List, which although is not shabby, told nothing of the books amazing reception to come in the next years, and the line-up of number one spots that Bridges of Madison County would hold on many bestseller lists. What is it that made this b
ook start out slowly but then soar to the top such that almost every American has either heard about, read the book or seen the movie? By 1998, Bridges of Madison County has sold over 50 million copies worldwide and has been translated into 25 languages. This book reached number one on the New York Times Book Seller list for 13 weeks and spent 3 years on the list. Bridges of Madison C
ounty even beat out Gone With the Wind in 1995 as the best-selling fiction book of all time. But in the beginning, by looking at the professional reviews that this novel by first-time self-proclaimed "eclectic" Robert James Waller received, one would ne
ver have predicted it's success to come. Many reviews responded negatively to it storyline, calling it "contrived," "trite," and "unbelievable." Some reviews compared to other soft-focus romance books, such as the Harlequin novels. Many reviewers had a hard time taking in the love affair of t
wo older people, and felt that they were acting like teenagers. One reviewer, Paula Carnes of the Los Angelos Times felt it was an insult to women's minds and hearts, and felt it demeaned normal marriages. Phrases like the "story of a life wasted," "for
larger pop culture," "unrealistic dialogue," and "sweet but flat" flowed from many reviewers in the years 1992 to 1993. Other reviewers obviously agreed with the millions of readers who made Bridges of Madison County a best seller. Charles Champlin of the Los Angelos Times Book Review caught the essence of this book in describing it as a "sleeper...a nice little book tha
t takes off slowly, without benefit of splashy advertising, book-club promotion or a flood of rave reviews, but that ends up on the best-seller list the old fashioned way-because readers fall in love with it and tell their friends." Many argue that especially in the 1980's and 90's, books become bestsellers mainly because of the popularity of the author. Authors like John Grisham, Stephen King, Danielle Steele and Ann Rice seem to dominate the list, almost regardless of the quality
of their latest work. It is doubtful, however, that Bridges of Madison County's success can be attributed to the same phenomenon. The author, Robert James Waller was relatively unknown and this was his first novel. He had published some short stories
before, but was more known to his friends and family as a musician and a business professor. This was Waller's first novel, and was written because of a song he remembered while photographing the bridges in Winterset, Iowa. The success of this first nov
el prompted Waller to continue publishing. He wrote and published four more books between November, 1993 and October, 1995. Bridges of Madison County and his second novel, Slow Waltz in Cedar Bend were even on the bestsellers list together at one point
in 1993. Bridges of Madison County had a slow start and many unflattering reviews. Yet Warner Books, it's publisher, lauds the book as a "blockbuster bestseller in the US, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, --everywhere!" As aforementioned, there are over 9 millio
n copies in print. What is it about this novel that caught the publics attention? One important fact to note about Bridges of Madison County is the way it was advertised and sold to many of it's first readers. Warner Books seemed to know that they were holding a winner; they published 29,00 copies of the first edition. That number i
s about three times higher than what would be expected for a book written by a first-time unknown author. Bridges of Madison County was next realized for the hit that it was by independent booksellers who pushed the book in their stores. There is a stor
e in Florida, Kingsley's, who offered a money-back guarantee on the book. This book store has sold about 1,600 copies of the book, and only 2 out of those came back for their money-back offer. The book was pushed by independent booksellers, and their cu
stomers obviously loved the book and spread it's appeal to their friends. Soon, even Oprah was doing a feature on the book on her day-time talk show. A successful movie from Amblin entertainment followed, and Waller has since been successfully publishin
g other novels. Bridges of Madison County received it's high sales volume through basic word of mouth, since the early reviews would not have urged people to run to the stores. The novel's plot is fairly simple. A married farmers wife meets a traveling photographer on
e summer weekend when her husband and children are away. Francesca has a simple, satisfactory life, but her excitement level is certainly lacking. The photographer, Robert Kincaid shows her a side of life full of change, travel and passion. The two hav
e a whirlwind romance, and Kincaid offers to take Francesca away from her mundane life. Francesca can't leave her family however. She explains that she could never bring such pain and humiliation to her family. In a way, she gives up her dream to keep
her family together. Robert leaves to continue traveling, but is always on Francesca's mind, as she is on his. They have only a couple of written contacts over the years. Kincaid dies, and sends his belongings to Francesca. When Francesca dies, she le
aves a letter of explanation to her children, and ask that her ashes be thrown off of the bridge that her and Kincaid met on. It is a sweet, short, easy to read novel, and there are several possible reasons why this book came to be such a bestseller. First of all, this book was written in 1992, in an era where the divorce rate is around 50%. Faith in marriage, and in true love, seems to be fading in the 1990's. This is an era of multiple marriages, multiple divorces, affairs being more commonplace
, and more and more people choosing not to marry but simply to live with each other. There seems to be a great amount of cynicism surrounding the concept of real "love." In fact, in 1993, John Gray's Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus, a book exalt
ing the confusion between the sexes, was a best seller as well on the non-fiction list. That certainly doesn't mean that people don't crave real love however. It is a topic that is less and less often written about. The 90's are also an era in which the
"traditional" family is often considered archaic. Family, and raising one's children, often play a second role after careers. Whereas in the 1950's most mothers stayed at home to raise their children while the fathers were the primary money makers, in
the 1990's some 70% of mothers are also working to supplement the high costs of living. These norms of the 1990's may help explain why Bridges of Madison County caught the American public's attention despite the early negative reviews. In this story, Francesca is in the traditional role of a mother and homemaker. She is faithfully married to her husband, Richard Johnson and has a simple, yet seemingly mundane life. The photographer, Robert Kincaid brings the passion, newness and even
foreignness that Francesca's life, and possibly many of the readers of this book, is missing. With Robert, she seems to find a new life, a sexual and emotional rebirth. This may have appealed to many of the readers who are convinced that such passion a
nd intense feeling isn't going to happen to them. If Francesca can have this rebirth, then perhaps so can the reader. In a world full of divorce and scandalous affairs that are broadcast over TV talk shows and newspaper, this love affair doesn't quite
fit into the same scheme. Instead of berating Francesca for cheating on Richard, the reader finds herself enthralled in what Francesca has found. If the book had taken a different turn, however, and Francesca had run off with Robert, the books readers m
ay not have loved it as much. Although everyone loved what Francesca had found, the readers still didn't want Francesca's family to suffer like so many families were suffering because of infidelity in the 1990's. The fact that Francesca refuses to leave
her family leaves the reader with a sense of conflict...half of the reader wants to her to keep that passion, and half wants her to "do the right thing." This book is a master at turning sense of propriety upside down. Waller's writing at this importan
t juncture of the book is masterful as well. This is on of those parts in books that make it impossible to put the book down. "As much as I want you and want to be with you and part of you, I can't tear myself away from the realness of my responsibiliti
es. If you force me, physically or mentally, to go with you, as I said earlier, I cannot fight that. I don't have the strength, given my feelings for you. In spite of what I said about not taking the road away from you, I'd go because of my own selfish
wanting of you. But please don't make me. Don't make me give this up, my responsibilities. I cannot do that and live with the thought of it. If I leave now, those thoughts would turn me into something other than the woman you have come to love." This eloquent passage seems to capture what many women feel, and what the readers half-way want Francesca to do. In this part, as in many other parts, the reader is joined with Francesca. We are rooting for her and aching for her, and can't help but wo
nder what we would do in her place. One of the most memorable lines in the book comes from Robert after Francesca tells him this. " I have one thing to say, one thing only; I'll never say it another time, to anyone, and I ask you to remember it: in a universe of ambiguity, this kind of certainty come only once, and never again, no matter how many lifetimes you live." This kind of dialogue is almost unbearable to the reader. One thing that makes this book so good, and so understandably a best seller are these kinds of masterful writing. Waller seems to put the language of the heart into printed words. Many readers c
an read this book and say "yes, yes" to themselves. There is not much chance that readers of this book could not feel the passion of Francesca and Robert, and feel some sort of emotion. One important fact to realize is that this love story was written by a male, yet obviously would affect the female reading population the most. It is always on the female readers mind that this was written by a male, yet he seems to understand so much a
bout love and can create 2 so perfectly matched lovers. It gives female readers hope that men still do exist who know how to fall in love and keep up love properly. In the 1990's, this is a sentiment seemingly echoed by the majority of women. Waller al
so didn't make Francesca the victim of a love-scam. He didn't have Kincaid simply use the naive housewife for a weekend affair. He created Kincaid's character to have the same emotions as Francesca. In fact, while Francesca stays with her family and he
r sort of love for her husband, Kincaid never gets married. He holds Francesca in his mind as his only love. This again will appeal to female readers, who would like to meet a man such as this. Waller created a bestseller by making characters that are
on one hand pretty believable, yet also seemingly out of the reach of normal readers. It is not surprising that after this book was published and became a best seller, the real bridges in Iowa became popular visiting spots. It is as if all the readers w
anted a piece of the romance that Robert and Francesca had; a romance that seems just out of reach, yet still believable, and still what many want, even in the 1990's. Another facet of Bridges of Madison County that could have helped it's reach its bestseller status is as simple as the number of pages. This book is an easy read, only 90 pages and doesn't require a college degree to understand it's nuances. In the bus
y, hurried life of the 1990's, it seems more and more that people are looking for the short, easy way, with their cars, their food, their technology and perhaps even their leisure reading. Bridges of Madison County does not require a month long reading c
ommitment. This fact, simple as it may be, may be important in looking at the amazingly high sales figures for this novel. It is hard to pin down for certain exactly what elements helped raise this novel to bestseller status. It seems reasonable to assume that a combination of many factors may be responsible. First, the times that this book was written in were prime to acc
ept a simple love story. Secondly, the themes of this book could be pleasurable to both romantics and love cynics. Finally, the simplicity and unassumingness of this novel help the reader glide through the romance of Robert and Francesca.

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